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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE MRI segmentation and mapping techniques were used to assess evidence in support of categorical distinctions between periventricular white matter hyperintensities (PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH). Qualitative MRI studies generally identify 2 categories of WMH on the basis of anatomical localization. Separate pathophysiologies and behavioral(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have identified effects of age and vascular risk factors on brain injury in elderly individuals. We aimed to establish whether the effects of high blood pressure in the brain are evident as early as the fifth decade of life. METHODS In an investigation of the third generation of the Framingham Heart Study, we approached all(More)
This paper presents a method for detection of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) based on run-time PD-, T1-, and T2-weighted structural magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain along with labeled training examples. Unlike most prior approaches, the method is able to reliably detect WMHs in elderly brains in the absence of fluid-attenuated(More)
Changes in memory function in elderly individuals are often attributed to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). One mechanism for this dysfunction may be disruption of white matter tracts that connect the PFC with its anatomical targets. Here, we tested the hypothesis that white matter degeneration is associated with reduced prefrontal activation. We(More)
OBJECTIVE To cross-sectionally compare the regional white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) of cognitively normal (CN) older individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD), separately focusing on the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and to test the independent effects of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are associated with progressive age-related cognitive decline and cardiovascular risk factors, but their biological relevance as indicators of generalized white matter injury is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging provides more sensitive indications of subtle white matter disruption and can therefore(More)
We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated(More)
Tensor-based morphometry is a powerful tool for automatically computing longitudinal change in brain structure. Because of bias in images and in the algorithm itself, however, a penalty term and inverse consistency are needed to control the over-reporting of nonbiological change. These may force a tradeoff between the intrinsic sensitivity and specificity,(More)
IMPORTANCE Magnetic resonance imaging markers of incipient cognitive decline among healthy elderly individuals have become important for both clarifying the biological underpinnings of dementia and clinically identifying healthy individuals at high risk of cognitive decline. Even though the role of hippocampal atrophy is well known in the later stages of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE GM volume, WMH volume, and FA are each associated with cognition; however, few studies have detected whether these 3 different types of MR imaging measurements exert independent or additive effects on cognitive performance. To detect their extent of contribution to cognitive performance, we explored the independent and additive(More)