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In biology, molecular linkages at, within, and beneath cell interfaces arise mainly from weak noncovalent interactions. These bonds will fail under any level of pulling force if held for sufficient time. Thus, when tested with ultrasensitive force probes, we expect cohesive material strength and strength of adhesion at interfaces to be time- and loading(More)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to measure the strength of bonds between biological receptor molecules and their ligands. But for weak noncovalent bonds, a dynamic spectrum of bond strengths is predicted as the loading rate is altered, with the measured strength being governed by the prominent barriers traversed in the energy landscape along the(More)
Micropipette pressurization of giant bilayer vesicles was used to measure both elastic bending k(c) and area stretch K(A) moduli of fluid-phase phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes. Twelve diacyl PCs were chosen: eight with two 18 carbon chains and degrees of unsaturation from one double bond (C18:1/0, C18:0/1) to six double bonds per lipid (diC18:3), two(More)
Continuous deformation and entry flow of single blood granulocytes into small caliber micropipets at various suction pressures have been studied to determine an apparent viscosity for the cell contents and to estimate the extent that dissipation in a cortical layer adjacent to the cell surface contributes to the total viscous flow resistance. Experiments(More)
  • E Evans
  • Annual review of biophysics and biomolecular…
  • 2001
On laboratory time scales, the energy landscape of a weak bond along a dissociation pathway is fully explored through Brownian-thermal excitations, and energy barriers become encoded in a dissociation time that varies with applied force. Probed with ramps of force over an enormous range of rates (force/time), this kinetic profile is transformed into a(More)
Micropipette aspiration was used to test mechanical strength and water permeability of giant-fluid bilayer vesicles composed of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine PC lipids. Eight synthetic-diacyl PCs were chosen with 18 carbon chains and degrees of unsaturation that ranged from one double bond (C18:0/1, C18:1/0) to six double bonds per PC molecule(More)
The elastic properties of the human red blood cell membrane have been measured as functions of temperature. The area compressibility modulus and the elastic shear modulus, which together characterize the surface elastic behavior of the membrane, have been measured over the temperature range of 2-50 degrees C with micropipette aspiration of flaccid and(More)
Pure bending of a membrane bilayer is developed including different properties for each membrane half. Both connected and unconnected bilayer surfaces are treated. The bilayer bending resistance is the resultant of parallel surface compression "resistances." The neutral surface is a function of the upper and lower surface compressibility moduli and does not(More)
A two-dimensional elastomer material concept of the red cell membrane is applied to the analysis of fluid shear-deformed, point-attached red cells and micropipette aspiration of red cell disks. The elastic constant (corresponding to the "shear" modulus multiplied by the membrane thickness) is of the order 10(-2) dyn/cm for both cases. Additional(More)
Observation of cell membrane buckling and cell folding in micropipette aspiration experiments was used to evaluate the bending rigidity of the red blood cell membrane. The suction pressure required to buckle the membrane surface initially was found to be about one-half to two-thirds of the pressure that caused the cell to fold and move up the pipet. A(More)