Learn More
The transition of cell-matrix adhesions from the initial punctate focal complexes into the mature elongated form, known as focal contacts, requires GTPase Rho activity. In particular, activation of myosin II-driven contractility by a Rho target known as Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) was shown to be essential for focal contact formation. To dissect the(More)
Galileo described the concept of motion relativity--motion with respect to a reference frame--in 1632. He noted that a person below deck would be unable to discern whether the boat was moving. Embryologists, while recognizing that embryonic tissues undergo large-scale deformations, have failed to account for relative motion when analyzing cell motility(More)
This study establishes that the physical state of the extracellular matrix can regulate integrin-mediated cytoskeletal assembly and tyrosine phosphorylation to generate two distinct types of cell-matrix adhesions. In primary fibroblasts, alpha(5)beta(1) integrin associates mainly with fibronectin fibrils and forms adhesions structurally distinct from focal(More)
This chapter focuses on the in vivo macroassembly dynamics of fibronectin and fibrillin-2--two prominent extracellular matrix (ECM) components, present in vertebrate embryos at the earliest stages of development. The ECM is an inherently dynamic structure with a well-defined position fate: ECM filaments are not only anchored to and move with established(More)
Focal adhesions mediate force transfer between ECM-integrin complexes and the cytoskeleton. Although vinculin has been implicated in force transmission, few direct measurements have been made, and there is little mechanistic insight. Using vinculin-null cells expressing vinculin mutants, we demonstrate that vinculin is not required for transmission of(More)
The early development of the zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryo is characterized by a series of rapid and synchronous cell cycles with no detectable transcription. This period is followed by the midblastula transition (MBT), during which the cell cycle gradually lengthens, cell synchrony is lost, and zygotic transcription is initially detected. In this work,(More)
The early stages of vertebrate development, encompassing gastrulation, segmentation, and caudal axis formation, presumably involve large (finite) morphogenetic deformations; however, there are few quantitative biomechanical data available for describing such large-scale or tissue-level deformations in the embryo. In this study, we present a new method for(More)
Large-scale morphogenetic movements during early embryo development are driven by complex changes in biochemical and biophysical factors. Current models for amniote primitive streak morphogenesis and gastrulation take into account numerous genetic pathways but largely ignore the role of mechanical forces. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to(More)
The long-range goal of our studies is to understand the forces that shape the embryos of warm-blooded animals. The conceptual framework underlying our studies is that by using computational time-lapse imaging we can record and measure BOTH individual cellular trajectories and long-range tissue motion in a live embryo. Tissue motion analysis is based on(More)
  • 1