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One of the mechanisms by which signalling molecules regulate cellular behaviour is modulating subcellular protein translocation. This mode of regulation is often based on specialized vesicle trafficking, termed constitutive cycling, which consists of repeated internalization and recycling of proteins to and from the plasma membrane. No such mechanism of(More)
The plant signalling molecule auxin provides positional information in a variety of developmental processes by means of its differential distribution (gradients) within plant tissues. Thus, cellular auxin levels often determine the developmental output of auxin signalling. Conceptually, transmembrane transport and metabolic processes regulate the(More)
The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in(More)
Intercellular flow of the phytohormone auxin underpins multiple developmental processes in plants. Plant-specific pin-formed (PIN) proteins and several phosphoglycoprotein (PGP) transporters are crucial factors in auxin transport-related development, yet the molecular function of PINs remains unknown. Here, we show that PINs mediate auxin efflux from(More)
Spatial distribution of the plant hormone auxin regulates multiple aspects of plant development. These self-regulating auxin gradients are established by the action of PIN auxin transporters, whose activity is regulated by their constitutive cycling between the plasma membrane and endosomes. Here, we show that auxin signaling by the auxin receptor(More)
The phytohormone auxin acts as a prominent signal, providing, by its local accumulation or depletion in selected cells, a spatial and temporal reference for changes in the developmental program. The distribution of auxin depends on both auxin metabolism (biosynthesis, conjugation and degradation) and cellular auxin transport. We identified in silico a novel(More)
The bacterial quorum sensing signals N-acyl-L: -homoserine lactones enable bacterial cells to regulate gene expression depending on population density, in order to undertake collective actions such as the infection of host cells. Only little is known about the molecular ways of plants reacting to these bacterial signals. In this study we show that the(More)
Polar auxin transport (PAT) plays key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Flavonoids have been implicated in the inhibition of PAT. However, the active flavonoid derivative(s) involved in this process in vivo has not yet been identified. Here, we provide evidence that a specific flavonol bis-glycoside is correlated with shorter plant(More)
The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across(More)
The polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin [1], which is crucial for the regulation of different stages of plant development [2, 3], depends on the asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers [4, 5]. The PIN polar localization results from clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) from the plasma membrane and(More)