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PERIOD proteins are central components of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian clocks. The crystal structure of a Drosophila PERIOD (dPER) fragment comprising two PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains (PAS-A and PAS-B) and two additional C-terminal alpha-helices (alphaE and alphaF) has revealed a homodimer mediated by intermolecular interactions of PAS-A with(More)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a universal second messenger that, in eukaryotes, was believed to act only on cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic nucleotide-regulated ion channels. Recently, guanine nucleotide exchange factors specific for the small GTP-binding proteins Rap1 and Rap2 (Epacs) were described, which are also activated(More)
The X-ray structure of a canonical GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), Serratia marcescens aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase, bound to coenzyme A (CoA) has been determined at 2.3 A resolution. The single domain alpha/beta protein resembles a cupped right hand wrapped around a cylinder and consists of a highly curved, six-stranded beta sheet of mixed(More)
Period (PER) proteins are essential components of the mammalian circadian clock. They form complexes with cryptochromes (CRY), which negatively regulate CLOCK/BMAL1-dependent transactivation of clock and clock-controlled genes. To define the roles of mammalian CRY/PER complexes in the circadian clock, we have determined the crystal structure of a complex(More)
Cryptochromes are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants, animals, and humans that control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. In plant cryptochromes, light activation is proposed to result from photoreduction of a protein-bound flavin chromophore through intramolecular electron transfer. However,(More)
Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a FAD-dependent circadian photoreceptor, whereas mammalian cryptochromes (CRY1/2) are integral clock components that repress mCLOCK/mBMAL1-dependent transcription. We report crystal structures of full-length dCRY, a dCRY loop deletion construct, and the photolyase homology region of mouse CRY1 (mCRY1). Our dCRY structures(More)
Many enzyme activities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are changed. Some of these enzyme activities are related to certain neurotransmitter systems. Enzymes in the brain can also be sensitive to antemortem hypoxia. In the present study it was determined if enzyme activities that are altered in AD are also subject to alteration by antemortem hypoxia. As an(More)
Most internationally travelled researchers will have encountered jetlag. If not, working odd hours makes most of us feel somehow dysfunctional. How can all this be linked to circadian rhythms and circadian clocks? In this review, we define circadian clocks, their composition and underlying molecular mechanisms. We describe and discuss recent crystal(More)
The clock-regulated RNA-binding protein AtGRP7 (Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RNA-binding protein) influences circadian oscillations of its transcript by negative feedback at the post-transcriptional level. Here we show that site-specific mutation of one conserved arginine to glutamine within the RNA recognition motif impairs binding of recombinant(More)
Circadian clocks in eukaryotes rely on transcriptional feedback loops, in which clock genes repress their own transcription resulting in molecular oscillations with a period of approximately 24 h. In Drosophila, the clock proteins Period (PER) and Timeless (TIM) operate in such a feedback loop, whereby they first accumulate in the cytoplasm of clock cells(More)