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This study examined the relationship between interoceptive awareness, anxiety, and the intensity of unpleasant feelings. The perception of visceral signals (interoceptive awareness) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, studies simultaneously investigating relationships between emotion processing, anxiety, and(More)
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Shared decision making is especially advocated for preference-sensitive decisions. We investigated whether physicians' recommendations pull patients away from their preferred treatment option when making a preference-sensitive decision. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Inpatients (N = 102 with schizophrenia, N = 101 with multiple(More)
BACKGROUND Feedback from the body is assumed to be altered in depression. Nevertheless, empirical studies investigating this assumed relationship remain sparse. This study aimed to examine interrelations between the ability to perceive heartbeats accurately (interoceptive awareness), depressive symptoms, and anxiety in healthy participants. METHODS A(More)
BACKGROUND If patients are unsure whether a specific treatment is really good for them, they often pose the question, 'What would you do if you were me, doctor?' Patients want their psychiatrists to put themselves in their shoes and not to give a 'standard recommendation'. AIMS To study whether this question really leads psychiatrists to reveal their(More)
OBJECTIVES Alexithymia is characterized by a difficulty in identifying and describing one's emotions. Recent research has associated differential effects of the alexithymia facets to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis markers during stress. This study aimed to analyze how the facets of alexithymia interact with autonomic reactivity as well as self-(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnostic errors can have tremendous consequences because they can result in a fatal chain of wrong decisions. Experts assume that physicians' desire to confirm a preliminary diagnosis while failing to seek contradictory evidence is an important reason for wrong diagnoses. This tendency is called 'confirmation bias'. METHOD To study whether(More)
This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with(More)
Research shows that people experience a motivational state of agitation known as reactance when they perceive restrictions to their freedoms. However, research has yet to show whether people experience reactance if they merely observe the restriction of another person's freedom. In Study 1, we activated realistic vicarious reactance in the laboratory. In(More)
Psychological reactance occurs in response to threats posed to perceived behavioral freedoms. Research has shown that people can also experience vicarious reactance. They feel restricted in their own freedom even though they are not personally involved in the restriction but only witness the situation. The phenomenon of vicarious reactance is especially(More)