Learn More
BACKGROUND Health behaviours are potential explanatory factors for socioeconomic differences in mortality. We examined the extent to which seven health behaviours covering dietary habits, smoking and physical activity, can account for relative differences in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by educational level. METHODS Health behaviour data derived(More)
Adverse health behaviors and obesity are key determinants of major chronic diseases. Evidence on work-related determinants of these behavioral risk factors is inconclusive, and comparative studies are especially lacking. We aimed to examine the associations between job strain, working overtime, adverse health behaviors, and obesity among 45-60-year-old(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe how nutrient intake and food consumption varied according to education and household income in men and women. The second aim was to find out to what extent the goals of the national dietary guidelines were met in different socioeconomic groups. DESIGN A random dietary survey using a 3 d estimated food(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to investigate (1) how much of the association between health and social class is accounted by psychosocial working conditions, and (2) whether health is related to working conditions after controlling for social class. METHODS The data derive from the surveys of the Helsinki health study, collected in 2000, 2001, and(More)
Two contrasting hypotheses have been presented to predict women's health variations. The Multiple burden hypothesis predicts that combining a paid job, being married, and having children is likely to be detrimental to women's health. The multiple attachment hypothesis predicts that multiple roles provide attachment to the community, which is likely to be(More)
This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural'development influenced health inequalities by employment status(More)
BACKGROUND Studies from different time periods have shown that consumption of vegetables is more common in higher socioeconomic groups and among women. However, there are only few studies of changes of socioeconomic differences in vegetable consumption over time. Our aim was to determine whether socioeconomic differences, measured by educational level and(More)
AIMS To test whether (1) physically demanding work is less frequent for older than younger employees, and whether (2) the association of physically demanding work with decline of physical functioning is stronger for older employees than their younger counterparts. The gender differences in these associations were examined. METHODS Subjects of the study(More)
The main aim of this study is to compare the patterning of health by family status and employment status among women in Finland and Sweden and to explore whether the patterning of health by family status is influenced by employment status and income. An additional aim was to identify which combinations of family status and employment status are especially(More)
This study examined whether the association of household income with fresh fruit and vegetable consumption varies by the level of education. Data were derived from mail surveys carried out during 2000-2002 among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n=8960, response rate 67%). Education was categorized into three levels, and the household(More)