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BACKGROUND Health behaviours are potential explanatory factors for socioeconomic differences in mortality. We examined the extent to which seven health behaviours covering dietary habits, smoking and physical activity, can account for relative differences in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality by educational level. METHODS Health behaviour data derived(More)
Two contrasting hypotheses have been presented to predict women's health variations. The Multiple burden hypothesis predicts that combining a paid job, being married, and having children is likely to be detrimental to women's health. The multiple attachment hypothesis predicts that multiple roles provide attachment to the community, which is likely to be(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe how nutrient intake and food consumption varied according to education and household income in men and women. The second aim was to find out to what extent the goals of the national dietary guidelines were met in different socioeconomic groups. DESIGN A random dietary survey using a 3 d estimated food(More)
This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural'development influenced health inequalities by employment status(More)
Adverse health behaviors and obesity are key determinants of major chronic diseases. Evidence on work-related determinants of these behavioral risk factors is inconclusive, and comparative studies are especially lacking. We aimed to examine the associations between job strain, working overtime, adverse health behaviors, and obesity among 45-60-year-old(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine associations between seven indicators of socio-economic circumstances and healthy food habits, while taking into account assumed temporal order between these socio-economic indicators. DESIGN AND SETTING Data were derived from cross-sectional postal questionnaires in 2000-2002. Socio-economic circumstances were assessed by parental(More)
BACKGROUND Studies from different time periods have shown that consumption of vegetables is more common in higher socioeconomic groups and among women. However, there are only few studies of changes of socioeconomic differences in vegetable consumption over time. Our aim was to determine whether socioeconomic differences, measured by educational level and(More)
BACKGROUND Electronic media use is becoming an increasingly important part of life for today's school-aged children. At the same time, concern of children's sleep habits has arisen, and cross-sectional studies have shown that electronic media use is associated with short sleep duration and sleep disturbances. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in work ability among municipal employees and the contribution of work conditions to these inequalities. METHODS The subjects were employees of the City of Helsinki and were all over 40 years of age. Data (N=1,827) were collected in the age-group-based medical check-ups(More)
AIMS To test whether (1) physically demanding work is less frequent for older than younger employees, and whether (2) the association of physically demanding work with decline of physical functioning is stronger for older employees than their younger counterparts. The gender differences in these associations were examined. METHODS Subjects of the study(More)