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As antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) suppress immune responses in Crohn's disease by binding to membrane-bound TNF (mTNF), we created a fluorescent antibody for molecular mTNF imaging in this disease. Topical antibody administration in 25 patients with Crohn's disease led to detection of intestinal mTNF(+) immune cells during confocal laser(More)
AIM The evaluation of inner retinal layer thickness can serve as a direct biomarker for monitoring the course of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer and changes in deeper retinal layers have been observed in patients with MS.(More)
T cells have an essential role in the induction of multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although for CD4(+) T cells it is well established that they contribute to the disease, less is known about the role of CD8(+) T cells. Our aim was to determine the individual contribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells(More)
The inhibitory effects of metabolites of l-trytophan, on gluconeogenesis in rat renal cortex has been established. 1. Glucose production was inhibited by quinolinate in vitro. The inhibition is due to the decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity. As suggested for purified enzyme systems, quinolinate seems to exert its action in tissue slices by(More)
BACKGROUND The pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS) consists of demyelination and neuronal injury, which occur early in the disease; yet, remission phases indicate repair. Whether and how the central nervous system (CNS) maintains homeostasis to counteract clinical impairment is not known. OBJECTIVE We analyse the structural connectivity of white matter(More)
Typical multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions occur in the brain as well as in the spinal cord. However, two extreme magnetic resonance imaging phenotypes appear occasionally: those with predominantly spinal cord lesions (MS + SL) and those with cerebral lesions and no detectable spinal lesions (MS + CL). We assessed whether morphological differences can be found(More)
The proneurotrophin receptor sortilin is a protein with dual functions, being involved in intracellular protein transport, as well as cellular signal transduction. The relevance of the receptor for various neuronal disorders, such as dementia, seizures, and brain injury, is well established. In contrast, little is known about the role of sortilin in immune(More)
Counter-balancing regulatory mechanisms, such as the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), limit the effects of autoimmune attack in neuroinflammation. However, the role of dendritic cells (DCs) as the most powerful antigen-presenting cells, which are intriguing therapeutic targets in this context, is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that(More)
1. Rat renal tubules were isolated by incubation with collagenase. The Na+ concentration in the tubules at 37 degrees C was increased by additions of g-strophantin and L-alanine. The increase of Na+ in the presence of both g-strophantin and L-alanine was stronger than with either alone. 2. Radioactive sodium (22-Na), which was taken up by the tubules at 0(More)
Previous studies reported conflicting results concerning different pain perceptions of men and women. Recent research found higher pain levels in men after major surgery, contrasted by women after minor procedures. This trial investigates differences in self-reported preoperative pain intensity between genders before surgery.Patients were enrolled in 2011(More)