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Resistance to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is driven by the selection of mutations at different positions in the NS3 protease, NS5B polymerase and NS5A proteins. With the exception of NS5B nucleos(t)ide inhibitors, most DAAs possess a low genetic barrier to resistance, with significant cross-resistance(More)
Entry inhibitors represent a new generation of antivirals for the treatment of HIV infection. Several compounds which block the attachment of HIV gp120 to either the CD4 T cell receptor or the CCR5/CXCR4 co-receptors are currently in clinical development. Most of these compounds have different molecular structures and specific mechanisms of action. These(More)
The approval of directly acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will represent a major breakthrough for the 180 million persons infected worldwide. Paradoxically, hepatitis C is the only human chronic viral disease that can be cured, as all other pathogenic viruses infecting humans either display self-limited(More)
A total of 1,220 subjects from Equatorial Guinea living in Spain (median age = 41 years; 453 male and 767 female) was examined for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV), and D (HDV) viruses. Extracted RNA and DNA from the positive samples were used to quantify viral load. The prevalence of HIV antibodies, HCV RNA,(More)
BACKGROUND It is unclear whether resistance to immunologic damage in long-term non-progressors (LTNP) will last indefinitely or whether it merely represents the extreme of a Gaussian distribution, and therefore progression will occur eventually. PATIENTS AND METHODS A cohort of 19 LTNP was established in 1997. Plasma viraemia and CD4 cell counts were(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tropism can be assessed using phenotypic assays, but this is quite laborious, expensive, and time-consuming and can be made only in sophisticated laboratories. More accessible albeit reliable tools for testing of HIV-1 tropism are needed in view of the prompt introduction of CCR5 antagonists in clinical practice.(More)
OBJECTIVE Rilpivirine (RPV) is the latest approved nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). It displays in-vitro activity extending over other NNRTI-resistant HIV strains. There is scarce information about the rate of RPV resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in patients failing other NNRTIs. METHODS RPV RAMs were examined in plasma samples(More)
BACKGROUND Genotypic tools may allow easier and less expensive estimation of HIV tropism before prescription of CCR5 antagonists compared with the Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences, South San Francisco, CA, USA). METHODS Paired genotypic and Trofile results were compared in plasma samples derived from the maraviroc expanded access programme (EAP) in(More)
Viral tropism plays an important role in HIV pathogenesis. However, its correlation with the clinical outcome and following exposure to antiretroviral drugs are still unclear. HIV-1 co-receptor usage was examined in 206 infected individuals: 67 seroconverters, 52 chronically drug-naïve, and 87 antiretroviral-experienced patients. The V3 loop was sequenced(More)
OBJECTIVES Evaluation of the reliability of several V3-based genotypic predictors to infer viral tropism in patients infected with B and non-B strains of HIV-1. METHODS Several genotypic tropism predictors were evaluated in plasma (RNA) samples from 198 HIV-1-infected patients, taking as gold standard the results of the phenotypic recombinant virus assay(More)