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Resistance to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is driven by the selection of mutations at different positions in the NS3 protease, NS5B polymerase and NS5A proteins. With the exception of NS5B nucleos(t)ide inhibitors, most DAAs possess a low genetic barrier to resistance, with significant cross-resistance(More)
Entry inhibitors represent a new generation of antivirals for the treatment of HIV infection. Several compounds which block the attachment of HIV gp120 to either the CD4 T cell receptor or the CCR5/CXCR4 co-receptors are currently in clinical development. Most of these compounds have different molecular structures and specific mechanisms of action. These(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) tropism can be assessed using phenotypic assays, but this is quite laborious, expensive, and time-consuming and can be made only in sophisticated laboratories. More accessible albeit reliable tools for testing of HIV-1 tropism are needed in view of the prompt introduction of CCR5 antagonists in clinical practice.(More)
Viral tropism plays an important role in HIV pathogenesis. However, its correlation with the clinical outcome and following exposure to antiretroviral drugs are still unclear. HIV-1 co-receptor usage was examined in 206 infected individuals: 67 seroconverters, 52 chronically drug-naïve, and 87 antiretroviral-experienced patients. The V3 loop was sequenced(More)
Genetic analysis of HIV-1 gp41 in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) compartments was performed longitudinally in 10 HIV-infected patients treated with enfuvirtide. The appearance of enfuvirtide resistance mutations in PBMCs (DNA) generally occurred after (from 23 to 157 weeks) being recognizable in plasma (RNA). The disappearance of(More)
Genetic sequence alignment of the transmembrane region from HIV-1 group O and HIV-2 isolates was performed to examine their potential susceptibility to fusion inhibitors enfuvirtide (T-20) and T-1249. A high genetic diversity within the HRI and HR2 domains was found, which should compromise any antiviral effect of T-20 on HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O viruses.(More)
Abstract The activity of raltegravir and etravirine was assessed in vitro in HIV-1 group O isolates. Despite the presence of some natural polymorphisms associated with resistance to raltegravir (V72I, L74I, S153A, V201I, and T206S) and etravirine (G190A), both drugs showed significant antiviral activity. Subsequently, the clinical benefit was shown in an(More)
BACKGROUND Daclatasvir (BMS-790052) is an investigational molecule that inhibits the HCV NS5A protein and shows potent antiviral activity apparently across all HCV genotypes. Selection of drug resistance mutations has been reported only for HCV genotype 1, and no information exists for other HCV variants and/or in HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. METHODS(More)