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People who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of acquiring HIV due to risky injection and sexual practices. We measured HIV prevalence and behaviors related to acquisition and transmission risk at two time points (2007 and 2012) in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We conducted two rounds of behavioral and biological surveillance among PWID using respondent-driven(More)
This article describes the frequency of alcohol use among HIV-positive patients attending clinical care in sub-Saharan Africa and explores the association between alcohol use, medication adherence, and sexual risk behavior. Data from 3538 patients attending an HIV clinic in Kenya, Tanzania, or Namibia were captured through interview and medical record(More)
High prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among females who use drugs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, contrasts strikingly with their low enrollment in HIV risk reduction services such as methadone assisted therapy (MAT). We conducted a case–control study to examine factors associated with non-enrollment in MAT, with a focus on gender-based(More)
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