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Experiments were performed to determine the cause of "acid crash", a phenomenon which occasionally occurs in pH-uncontrolled batch fermentations resulting in premature cessation of ABE (acetone butanol) production. The results indicate that "acid crash" occurs when the concentration of undissociated acids in the broth exceeds 57 - 60 mmol/l. Prevention can(More)
The decrease of the tryptophan fluorescence (Ex/Em = 282/331 nm) was used to monitor the kinetics of copper-mediated LDL oxidation. Cu2+ causes a concentration-dependent quenching of the LDL Trp-fluorescence, the maximum of about 22% suggests that 8-9 Trp residues (out of a total of 37) are accessible for Cu2+ ions. Decomposition of LDL tryptophan commences(More)
Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were exposed to several heavy metal salts and the induction of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) mRNA was analysed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Metals were added to the cell medium at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 microM and incubation was continued for 4 h. In addition we analysed the(More)
Plant identification is challenging when no morphologically assignable parts are available. There is a lack of broadly applicable methods for identifying plants in this situation, for example when roots grow in mixture and for decayed or semi-digested plant material. These difficulties have also impeded the progress made in ecological disciplines such as(More)
Belowground herbivores impact plant performance, thereby inducing changes in plant community composition, which potentially leads to cascading effects onto higher trophic levels and ecosystem processes and productivity. Among soil-living insects, external root-chewing generalist herbivores have the strongest impact on plants. However, the lack of knowledge(More)
The synthesis of some selected PAF-acether homologues with an alkoxy-chain length from C1 to C20 in position 1 is described. All agonist activities are closely correlated among themselves and with the calculated fatty-chain hydrophobicity. After a discussion on recent published results and comparison with our data, we conclude that the ether oxide function(More)
When chronically administered, 3-hydroxymethyl N-methyl piperidine (4-chlorophenoxy) acetate, hydrochloride, causes reduced food intake and weight gain in obese (fa/fa) rats. We observe an increase in free fatty acid concentration of obese (fa/fa) rats treated for 12 days.
In order to undertake a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the hydrophobic effect of the etheroxid chain to agonistic activity, it was necessary to include in the calculated data a highly lipophilic platelet-activating factor (PAF) analogue. The synthesis of such a compound--racemic 1-O-docosyl-2-O-acetylglycero-3-phosphocholine (C22 PAF)--is(More)
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