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AIMS To clarify the major features of the apical ballooning syndrome, we performed a systematic review of the existing literature. METHODS AND RESULTS Review of all relevant case series using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases resulted in the identification of 14 studies. These studies suggest that the apical ballooning syndrome accounts for approximately(More)
Continuing Medical Education Course for “Use of Carotid Ultrasound to Identify Subclinical Vascular Disease and Evaluate Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Consensus Statement for the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force” Accreditation Statement: The American Society of Echocardiography is accredited by the(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiovascular disease rates vary greatly between ethnic groups in Canada. To establish whether this variation can be explained by differences in disease risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis, we undertook a population-based study of three ethnic groups in Canada: South Asians, Chinese, and Europeans. METHODS 985 participants were(More)
The present article represents the 2009 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult.
CONTEXT Experimental and epidemiological data suggest that vitamin E supplementation may prevent cancer and cardiovascular events. Clinical trials have generally failed to confirm benefits, possibly due to their relatively short duration. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether long-term supplementation with vitamin E decreases the risk of cancer, cancer death, and(More)
Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations(More)
PURPOSE To review epidemiologic studies on the association between homocyst(e)ine level and risk for cardiovascular disease and the potential benefits of homocysteine-decreasing therapies. DATA SOURCES Computerized and manual searches of the literature on total homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease. STUDY SELECTION Prospective studies and major(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative modification of LDL cholesterol play important roles in atherosclerosis. The Study to Evaluate Carotid Ultrasound changes in patients treated with Ramipril and vitamin E (SECURE), a substudy of the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial, was a prospective,(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), atherosclerosis, and their risk factors among Canada's Aboriginal people. To establish the relative prevalence of risk factors, atherosclerosis, and CVD, we undertook a population-based study among people of Aboriginal and European ancestry in Canada. METHODS We randomly recruited(More)
OBJECTIVES Experimental and observational studies suggest that vitamin E may reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events and of microvascular complications in people with diabetes. However, data from randomized clinical trials are limited. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of vitamin E supplementation on major CV outcomes and on the development of(More)