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Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking may have long-lasting effects on DNA methylation patterns, which might lead to changes in gene expression and in a broader context to the development or progression of various diseases. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAs) comparing current, former and never smokers from 1793 participants of(More)
Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46,(More)
Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) play an important role in the formation of omega-6 and omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). The composition of HUFAs in the human metabolome is important for membrane fluidity and for the modulation of essential physiological functions such as inflammation processes and brain development. Several recent studies(More)
Understanding the complexity of aging is of utmost importance. This can now be addressed by the novel and powerful approach of metabolomics. However, to date, only a few metabolic studies based on large samples are available. Here, we provide novel and specific information on age-related metabolite concentration changes in human homeostasis. We report(More)
Several physiological processes, such as visual and cognitive development in early life, are dependent on the availability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Furthermore, the concentration of LC-PUFAs in phospholipids has been associated with numerous complex diseases like cardiovascular disease, atopic disease and metabolic syndrome. The(More)
Blood and tissue contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) are related to numerous health outcomes including cardiovascular health, allergies, mental health and cognitive development. Evidence has accumulated to show that in addition to diet, common polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have very(More)
Fetal supply with long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) during pregnancy is important for brain growth and visual and cognitive development and is provided by materno-fetal placental transfer. We recently showed that maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotypes modulate the amounts of LC-PUFA in maternal blood. Whether FADS genotypes influence the amounts of(More)
BACKGROUND   The protective effect of breastfeeding (BF) on the development of asthma has been widely recognized, even if not all results have been consistent. Gene variants of the FADS gene cluster have a major impact on fatty acid composition in blood and in breast milk. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster polymorphisms(More)
Genetic variations in fat mass- and obesity (FTO)-associated gene, a well-replicated gene locus of obesity, appear to be associated also with reduced regional brain volumes in elderly. Here, we examined whether FTO is associated with total brain volume in adolescence, thus exploring possible developmental effects of FTO. We studied a population-based sample(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases have long been known to be important enzymes in the endogenous formation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Cloning of the coding sequences and chromosomal localization of the desaturase encoding genes fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2 (FADS1 and FADS2) opened the way for analyses of(More)