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Diverse molecules, from small antibacterial drugs to large protein toxins, are exported directly across both cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. This export is brought about by the reversible interaction of substrate-specific inner-membrane proteins with an outer-membrane protein of the TolC family, thus bypassing the intervening periplasm. Here we(More)
The toxin HlyA is exported from Escherichia coli, without a periplasmic intermediate, by a type I system comprising an energized inner-membrane (IM) translocase of two proteins, HlyD and the traffic ATPase HlyB, and the outer-membrane (OM) porin-like TolC. These and the toxin substrate were expressed separately to reconstitute export and, via affinity tags(More)
Bacteria like Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa expel drugs via tripartite multidrug efflux pumps spanning both inner and outer membranes and the intervening periplasm. In these pumps a periplasmic adaptor protein connects a substrate-binding inner membrane transporter to an outer membrane-anchored TolC-type exit duct. High-resolution structures(More)
Multidrug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is conferred by three-component membrane pumps that expel diverse antibiotics from the cell. These efflux pumps consist of an inner membrane transporter such as the AcrB proton antiporter, an outer membrane exit duct of the TolC family, and a periplasmic protein known as the adaptor. We present the x-ray(More)
We have studied the C-terminal signal which directs the complete export of the 1024-amino-acid hemolysin protein (HlyA) of Escherichia coli across both bacterial membranes into the surrounding medium. Isolation and sequencing of homologous hlyA genes from the related bacteria Proteus vulgaris and Morganella morganii revealed high primary sequence divergence(More)
TolC is an outer membrane protein required for the export of virulence proteins and toxic compounds without a periplasmic intermediate. We show that TolC is an integral part of the translocator, interacting with inner membrane components, by demonstrating a need for TolC in protein export not only from intact cells but also from sphaeroplasts. To establish(More)
Secreted hemolysins were extremely common among clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii, and hemolytic activity was either cell associated or cell free. Southern hybridization of total DNA from hemolytic isolates to cloned regions of the Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin (hly) determinant showed clear but incomplete(More)
Bacterial multidrug resistance is a serious clinical problem and is commonly conferred by tripartite efflux 'pumps' in the prokaryotic cell envelope. Crystal structures of the three components of a drug efflux pump have now been solved: the outer membrane TolC exit duct in the year 2000, the inner membrane AcrB antiporter in 2002 and the periplasmic adaptor(More)
The haemolysin exporter HlyB and its homologues are central to the unconventional signal-peptide-independent secretion of toxins, proteases and nodulation proteins by bacteria. HlyB is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or traffic ATPase superfamily, and resembles closely in structure and function mammalian exporters such as the multidrug-resistance(More)
Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa expel antibiotics and other inhibitors via tripartite multidrug efflux pumps spanning the inner and outer membranes and the intervening periplasmic space. A key event in pump assembly is the recruitment of an outer membrane-anchored TolC exit duct by the adaptor protein of a cognate inner membrane(More)