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OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship of inflammation and endothelial activation with insulin resistance and adiposity in type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS Hundred and thirty-four (45 female) type 2 diabetic subjects aged 50-75 in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes Study in Helsinki were examined before fenofibrate(More)
There is evidence for the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) in oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein, human plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions. We studied the effect of lysoPC on the cytokine production by human monocytes. Among all the cytokines tested (IL-8, TNF alpha, MCP-1 and IL-1beta), we found that lysoPC most consistently(More)
Increased expression of secretory non-pancreatic phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) could be part of the inflammatory reaction in atherosclerosis. However, the factors controlling sPLA(2)-IIA production in human vascular cells are unknown. We investigated regulation of sPLA(2)-IIA expression and secretion by human arterial smooth muscle cells in culture(More)
Macrophages and arterial chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) are probably associated with extracellular and intracellular lipoprotein deposition during atherogenesis. We found that human arterial CSPG can be used to select subclasses from low density lipoprotein (LDL) with different structural properties and capacities to interact with human(More)
The atherogenicity of low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be modulated by its serum levels, structure and affinity for components of the intima, all properties that can be altered by diet. Linoleic acid-rich diets (n-G, 18:2) reduce the levels of LDL whereas those rich in oleic (n-9,18:1) are considered 'neutral'. However, LDL enriched in linoleic acid have(More)
Retention of apo B-100 lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and probably lipoprotein(a), Lp(a), by intima proteoglycans (PGs) appears to increase the residence time needed for their structural, hydrolytic and oxidative modifications. If the rate of LDL entry exceeds the tissue capacity to eliminate the modified products, this process may be a(More)
By its very nature, rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque is difficult to study directly in humans. A good animal model would help us not only to understand how rupture occurs but also to design and test treatments to prevent it from happening. However, several difficulties surround existing models of plaque rupture, including the need for radical(More)
Secretory nonpancreatic type II phospholipase A2 (snpPLA2) hydrolyzes fatty acids at the sn-2 position in phospholipids releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) and lysophospholipids. These products may act as intracellular second messengers or can be further metabolized into proinflammatory lipid mediators. The presence of snpPLA2 in extracellular fluids and(More)
BACKGROUND Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops. To assess the role of the liver in the evolution of inflammation, we treated ApoE*3Leiden mice with cholesterol-free (Con), low (LC;(More)
Chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans secreted by arterial intima smooth muscle cells appear involved in low density lipoprotein entrapment and modification. Hypothetically, such a process may contribute to atherogenesis. We compared composition and size of those proteoglycans synthesized by proliferating and resting human arterial smooth muscle cells for(More)