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Crossing over establishes connections between homologous chromosomes that promote their proper segregation at the first meiotic division. However, there exists a backup system to ensure the correct segregation of those chromosome pairs that fail to cross over. We have found that, in budding yeast, a mutation eliminating the synaptonemal complex protein,(More)
Crossover recombination reshuffles genes and prevents errors in segregation that lead to extra or missing chromosomes (aneuploidy) in human eggs, a major cause of pregnancy failure and congenital disorders. Here we generate genome-wide maps of crossovers and chromosome segregation patterns by recovering all three products of single female meioses.(More)
Sexually reproducing organisms halve their cellular ploidy during gametogenesis by undergoing a specialized form of cell division known as meiosis. During meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of nuclear divisions (referred to as meiosis I and II). While sister kinetochores bind to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle(More)
To test whether missense mutations in the cancer susceptibility gene MLH1 adversely affect meiosis, we examined 14 yeast MLH1 mutations for effects on meiotic DNA transactions and gamete viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutations analogous to those associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or those that reduce Mlh1p(More)
The faithful alignment of homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase requires the coordination of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair with large-scale chromosome reorganization. Here we identify the phosphatase PP4 (Pph3/Psy2) as a mediator of this process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In pp4 mutants, early stages of crossover repair and(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Mismatch repair proteins play important roles during meiotic recombination in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most eukaryotic organisms studied to date. To study the functions of the mismatch repair protein Mlh2p in meiosis, we constructed mlh2Delta strains and measured rates of crossing over, gene conversion, post-meiotic(More)
The embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (VZ/SVZ) contain the neuronal stem and progenitor cells and undergo rapid proliferation. The intermediate zone (IZ) contains nonreplicating, differentiated cells. The VZ/SVZ is hypersensitive to radiation-induced apoptosis. Ablation of DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins, XRCC4 or DNA ligase IV(More)
Cells coordinate spindle formation with DNA repair and morphological modifications to chromosomes prior to their segregation to prevent cell division with damaged chromosomes. Here we uncover a novel and unexpected role for Aurora kinase in preventing the formation of spindles by Clb5-CDK (S-CDK) during meiotic prophase I and when the DDR is active in(More)
Mlh1p forms three heterodimers that are important for mismatch repair (Mlh1p/Pms1p), crossing over during meiosis (Mlh1p/Mlh3p), and channeling crossover events into a specific pathway (Mlh1p/Mlh2p). All four proteins contain highly conserved ATPase domains and Pms1p has endonuclease activity. Studies of the functional requirements for Mlh1p/Pms1p in(More)
During meiosis, Structural Maintenance of Chromosome (SMC) complexes underpin two fundamental features of meiosis: homologous recombination and chromosome segregation. While meiotic functions of the cohesin and condensin complexes have been delineated, the role of the third SMC complex, Smc5/6, remains enigmatic. Here we identify specific, essential meiotic(More)