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The type III secretion system (TTSS) is a key mechanism for host cell interaction used by a variety of bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and animals including humans. The TTSS represents a molecular syringe with which the bacteria deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Despite the importance of the TTSS for bacterial(More)
Chlamydiae are evolutionarily well-separated bacteria that live exclusively within eukaryotic host cells. They include important human pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis as well as symbionts of protozoa. As these bacteria are experimentally challenging and genetically intractable, our knowledge about them is still limited. In this study, we obtained(More)
Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous membrane lipids of eukaryotic organisms and a few bacteria. Whereas inositol-containing glycosphingolipids are restricted to plants and fungi, galactosylceramide occurs only in fungi and animals. In contrast, glucosylceramide is the unique glycosphingolipid which plants, fungi and animals have in common. However, there are(More)
Chlamydiae are a unique group of obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of vertebrates as well as symbionts of free-living amoebae. Although there is ample molecular evidence for a huge diversity and wide distribution of chlamydiae in nature, environmental chlamydiae are currently represented by only few isolates. This paper reports(More)
The fungal Ccr4-NOT complex has been implicated in orchestrating gene expression networks that impact on pathways key for virulence in pathogenic species. The activity of Ccr4-NOT regulates cell wall integrity, antifungal drug susceptibility, adaptation to host temperature, and the developmental switches that enable the formation of pathogenic structures,(More)
Mimivirus is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) with a genome size (1.2 Mb) and coding capacity ( 1000 genes) comparable to that of some cellular organisms. Unlike other viruses, Mimivirus and its NCLDV relatives encode homologs of broadly conserved informational genes found in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes, raising the possibility that they(More)
Proteins from the Omp85 family have roles in membrane biogenesis, and the archetypal protein of this family is the bacterial outer membrane protein BamA. Through evolution, BamA has acquired membrane protein partner subunits, but distinct partner subunits are evident in the various bacterial lineages. As a result, experimental work on several species of(More)
Microsporidia are an abundant group of obligate intracellular parasites of other eukaryotes, including immunocompromised humans, but the molecular basis of their intracellular lifestyle and pathobiology are poorly understood. New genomes from a taxonomically broad range of microsporidians, complemented by published expression data, provide an opportunity(More)
The Type II Secretion System (T2SS) is a molecular machine that drives the secretion of fully-folded protein substrates across the bacterial outer membrane. A key element in the machinery is the secretin: an integral, multimeric outer membrane protein that forms the secretion pore. We show that three distinct forms of T2SSs can be distinguished based on the(More)
Chlamydiae are a group of obligate intracellular bacteria comprising several important human pathogens. Inside the eukaryotic cell, chlamydiae remain within a host-derived vesicular compartment, termed the inclusion. They modify the inclusion membrane through insertion of unique proteins, which are involved in interaction with and manipulation of the host(More)