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BACKGROUND The amygdala plays an important role in the regulation of emotions and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Studies of amygdala volumes in mood disorders have been conflicting, with findings of increased, decreased and unchanged amygdala volumes in patients relative to controls. We present the largest meta-analysis of(More)
OBJECTIVE Bipolar disorders (BD) have a strong genetic underpinning, yet no biological vulnerability markers for BD have yet been identified. To test whether amygdala or hippocampal volumes represent an endophenotype for BD, we measured mesiotemporal volumes in young affected and unaffected relatives of patients with BD (high-risk design). METHOD(More)
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in studies of patients with bipolar disorders (BD). Despite the high rates of WMHs, their role and etiology in BD are not well understood. WMHs occur in multiple other conditions frequently co-morbid with BD. From the available studies it seems that WMHs are not a(More)
OBJECTIVE Age-related abnormalities in caudate volumes have been reported to differ across the periods of childhood and puberty in children with ADHD. This study assessed caudate volumetric abnormalities across two narrow age clusters within the childhood period. METHOD Three-dimensional manual tracings of the head and body of the caudate nucleus and of(More)
BACKGROUND Bipolar disorders (BD) have a strong genetic underpinning, yet no biological vulnerability markers for BD have been identified. Decreased volumes of subgenual cingulate (SGC) were replicated in familial bipolar patients. Presence of abnormality in unaffected subjects at genetic risk for an illness needs to be established before SGC volumes can be(More)
BACKGROUND Increased, decreased, as well as unchanged pituitary volumes have been reported in bipolar disorders (BD). It is unclear, whether abnormal pituitary volumes increase vulnerability for BD (primary vulnerability marker), or are secondary to burden of illness. To address this question, we performed the first high-risk study of pituitary volumes in(More)
Decreased volumes of subgenual cingulate (SGC) have been reported primarily among familial bipolar patients, which is one of the hallmarks of an endophenotype. In order to investigate specificity of SGC volume abnormalities to familial mood disorders and to test whether SGC volumes represent an endophenotype for BD, we measured SGC volumes in young affected(More)
BACKGROUND Striatal volume changes reported in bipolar disorders could represent artifacts of medication or comorbid conditions, or illness related changes, either biological predispositions or consequences of illness burden. We conducted volumetric high-risk study to investigate whether striatal volume changes represent primary biological risk factor for(More)
BACKGROUND White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder (BD). It is not clear whether these lesions are an artifact of comorbid conditions, or whether they are directly associated with the disorder, or even represent biological risk factor for BD. METHODS To test whether WMHs meet criteria(More)
It is well known that a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) predominantly affect women and there has been much attention directed toward understanding why this is the case. Past research has revealed a number of sex differences in autoimmune responses that can account for the female bias in MS. However, much less is known about(More)
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