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A characteristic feature of tumors is high production of lactic acid due to enhanced glycolysis. Here, we show a positive correlation between lactate serum levels and tumor burden in cancer patients and examine the influence of lactic acid on immune functions in vitro. Lactic acid suppressed the proliferation and cytokine production of human cytotoxic T(More)
The tumor milieu can influence dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. We analyzed DC differentiation in a 3-dimensional tumor model and propose a new mechanism of DC modulation by the tumor environment. Monocytes were cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF within multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs) generated from different tumor cell lines. Monocytes(More)
Several members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily can induce cell death. For TNF-R1, Fas/APO-1, DR3, DR6, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, a conserved 'death domain' in the intracellular region couples these receptors to activation of caspases. However, it is not yet known how TNF receptor family members lacking a death domain, such as(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen presenting cells that acquire, process, and present tumor-associated antigens to T cells for the induction of antigen-specific tumor immune responses. DC have been shown to infiltrate many tumors but both, circulating and tumor-infiltrating DC from cancer patients, appear to be phenotypically and functionally(More)
CD68, the human homologue of macrosialin, is commonly regarded as a selective marker for human monocytes and macrophages. Its expression is thought to be regulated by a macrophage-specific promoter. However, several immunohistochemical studies have indicated that CD68 antibodies also react with other haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cell types. We(More)
Prior to their association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, peptides generated from cytosolic antigens need to be translocated by the MHC-encoded peptide transporter (TAP) into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While class I molecules possess well-known binding characteristics for peptides, the fine specificity of(More)
Lactate formation in highly proliferative tumors such as malignant gliomas is associated with poor survival and contributes to the suppression of local immunity. Here, we report that diclofenac used at nontoxic concentrations significantly decreased lactate production in murine glioma cells and inhibited the expression of lactate dehydrogenase-A in vitro.(More)
Tumor cells have developed multiple mechanisms to escape T-cell-mediated immune recognition. Recent work has revealed that the altered tumor metabolism depletes essential nutrients or leads to the accumulation of immunosuppressive metabolites in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we discuss the suppressive activity of some metabolic key players,(More)
High concentrations of lactic acid (LA) are found under various pathophysiological conditions and are accompanied by an acidification of the environment. To study the impact of LA on TNF secretion, human LPS-stimulated monocytes were cultured with or without LA or the corresponding pH control. TNF secretion was significantly suppressed by low concentrations(More)
Lactic acidosis is common to most solid tumors and has been found to affect infiltrating immune cells. Here we document effector phase inhibition of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) involving complete blockage of cytokine production and partial impairment of lytic granule exocytosis. Lactic acidosis impaired TCR-triggered phosphorylation of JNK, c-Jun and p38,(More)