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In major depression, prefrontal regulation of limbic brain areas may be a key mechanism that is impaired during the processing of affective information. This prefrontal–limbic interaction has been shown to be modulated by serotonin (5-HTT) genotype, indicating a higher risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) with increasing number of 5-HTT low-expression(More)
BACKGROUND Pavlovian processes are thought to play an important role in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcohol dependence, possibly by influencing and usurping ongoing thought and behavior. The influence of pavlovian stimuli on ongoing behavior is paradigmatically measured by pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) tasks. These involve(More)
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with impaired processing and regulation of emotions. A vast body of research has elucidated the altered neural processes that occur in response to emotional stimuli, while little is known about anticipatory processes. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation(More)
In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus(More)
Effort has repeatedly been shown to have a pervasive effect on performance in psychological tests. The current study evaluates to what degree performance on various psychological tests is affected by lack of effort as compared with brain injury. Psychological and medical data from a sample of 233 patients referred from Workers' Compensation Boards or from(More)
Hard-wired, Pavlovian, responses elicited by predictions of rewards and punishments exert significant benevolent and malevolent influences over instrumentally-appropriate actions. These influences come in two main groups, defined along anatomical, pharmacological, behavioural and functional lines. Investigations of the influences have so far concentrated on(More)
BACKGROUND Deficits in working memory (WM) are a core symptom of schizophrenia patients and have been linked to dysfunctional prefrontal activation, which might be caused by a mesocortical hypodopaminergic state. Aripiprazole--a partial dopamine antagonist--is a novel antipsychotic, which increases frontal dopamine concentrations in preclinical studies.(More)
BACKGROUND Early dysfunction of the brain reward system in schizophrenia might be already recognized in the prodromal phase of this illness. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the blood oxygen level-dependent response in the ventral striatum (VS) of subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis during the presentation of reward-indicating(More)
Fluid intelligence (fluid IQ), defined as the capacity for rapid problem solving and behavioral adaptation, is known to be modulated by learning and experience. Both stressful life events (SLES) and neural correlates of learning [specifically, a key mediator of adaptive learning in the brain, namely the ventral striatal representation of prediction errors(More)
Dysfunctional emotion processing in patients suffering from schizophrenia is a prominent clinical feature of great importance for social functioning and subjective well-being. The neurobiological underpinnings are still poorly understood. Here we investigated a large sample of schizophrenia patients and matched healthy controls with an event-related fMRI(More)