Eva Forsgren

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well recognized beneficial host-associated members of the microbiota of humans and animals. Yet LAB-associations of invertebrates have been poorly characterized and their functions remain obscure. Here we show that honeybees possess an abundant, diverse and ancient LAB microbiota in their honey crop with beneficial effects for(More)
A polyphasic taxonomic study of the two subspecies of Paenibacillus larvae, Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens, supported the reclassification of the subspecies into one species, Paenibacillus larvae, without subspecies separation. Our conclusions are based on the analysis of six reference strains of P. larvae(More)
Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting the midgut epithelial cells of adult honey bees. N. ceranae was considered to be restricted to the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, but is nowadays a parasite found also in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) across most of the world. Recent surveys and experimental work(More)
We evaluated the antagonistic effects of newly identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, originating from the honey stomach, on the honey bee pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We used inhibition assays on agar plates and honey bee larval bioassays to investigate the effects of honey bee LAB on P. larvae growth in(More)
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors(More)
European foulbrood (EFB) is a severe bacterial brood disease caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Melissocccus plutonius. The disease has a worldwide distribution and is an increasing problem in some areas. Although the causative agent of EFB was described almost a century ago, many basic aspects of its pathogenesis are still unknown. This review presents(More)
There are several methods for cultivation of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB) in honey bees. Protocols for detection of sub-clinical levels of the bacterium from honey and bee samples include heat treatment of samples. The main objective of this study was to investigate if there is variability in temperature resistance(More)
Mites in the genus Tropilaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) are ectoparasites of the brood of honey bees (Apis spp.). Different Tropilaelaps subspecies were originally described from Apis dorsata, but a host switch occurred to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, for which infestations can rapidly lead to colony death. Tropilaelaps is hence considered more(More)
Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV) is a large double stranded DNA virus of honey bees, but its relationship with other parasites and prevalence are poorly known. We analyzed individual honey bees from three colonies at different times post emergence in order to monitor the dynamics of the AmFV gut colonization under natural conditions. Prevalence and(More)
A sensitive hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for detection of Melissococcus plutonius, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB). Sampling was made in Switzerland, where EFB is a widespread disease and incidences have increased in recent years. Larvae from brood samples with and without clinical signs of disease (n = 92) and honey(More)