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Current approaches to inhibit nuclear receptor (NR) activity target the hormone binding pocket but face limitations. We have proposed that inhibitors, which bind to nuclear receptor surfaces that mediate assembly of the receptor's binding partners, might overcome some of these limitations. The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in prostate cancer,(More)
AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are essential for synaptic plasticity. ANQX, a photoreactive AMPA receptor antagonist, is an important biological probe used to irreversibly inactivate AMPA receptors. Here, using X-ray crystallography and mass spectroscopy, we report that ANQX forms two major products in the presence of the(More)
Granzyme K (GzmK) belongs to a family of trypsin-like serine proteases localized in electron dense cytoplasmic granules of activated natural killer and cytotoxic T-cells. Like the related granzymes A and B, GzmK can trigger DNA fragmentation and is involved in apoptosis. We expressed the Ser(195) --> Ala variant of human pro-GzmK in Escherichia coli,(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) form a large superfamily of transcription factors that participate in virtually every key biological process. They control development, fertility, gametogenesis and are misregulated in many cancers. Their enormous functional plasticity as transcription factors relates in part to NR-mediated interactions with hundreds of coregulatory(More)
Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1) functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent(More)
Androgen receptor (AR) is a major therapeutic target that plays pivotal roles in prostate cancer (PCa) and androgen insensitivity syndromes. We previously proposed that compounds recruited to ligand-binding domain (LBD) surfaces could regulate AR activity in hormone-refractory PCa and discovered several surface modulators of AR function. Surprisingly, the(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) regulates gene transcription in many tissues and is profoundly important in prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with the natural hormone and are front line therapeutics to treat prostate cancer. However, antiandrogens frequently become ineffective after prolonged treatment because of development of tumor resistance. This paper(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key players in the regulation of gene expression, coordinating protein assemblies upon their surfaces. NRs are regulated by ligand binding, which remodels the interaction surfaces and subsequently influences macromolecular complex formation. Structural biology has been instrumental in the discovery of some of these ligands, but(More)
Androgens drive sex differentiation, bone and muscle development, and promote growth of hormone-dependent cancers by binding the nuclear androgen receptor (AR), which recruits coactivators to responsive genes. Most nuclear receptors recruit steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) to their ligand binding domain (LBD) using a leucine-rich motif (LXXLL). AR is(More)
Granzyme A (GzmA) belongs to a family of trypsin-like serine proteases localized in cytoplasmic granules of activated lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. In contrast to the related granzyme B (GzmB), GzmA forms a stable disulfide-linked homodimer and triggers target-cell death in a caspase-independent way. Limited proteolysis of a high-molecular-mass(More)