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The human gut microbiota and microbial influences on lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation are known to be involved in metabolic syndrome. Fermentation end products, especially short chain fatty acids, are believed to engage the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory reactions via FFARs (free fatty acid receptor) and other(More)
Metabolic syndrome is associated with alterations in the structure of the gut microbiota leading to low-grade inflammatory responses. An increased penetration of the impaired gut membrane by bacterial components is believed to induce this inflammation, possibly involving epigenetic alteration of inflammatory molecules such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We(More)
Infections with parasitic helminths are associated with a T helper 2 (Th2) immune response and IgE production. The underlying mechanism, however, is only partially understood. Recently we have isolated a protein from extracts of Schistosoma mansoni eggs that triggers human basophils from non-sensitized donors to release interleukin-4 (IL-4), the key(More)
Genetic and environmental factors, especially nutrition and lifestyle, have been discussed in the literature for their relevance to epidemic obesity. Gene-environment interactions may need to be understood for an improved understanding of the causes of obesity, and epigenetic mechanisms are of special importance. Consequences of epigenetic mechanisms seem(More)
Strain specific properties of probiotics in providing supportive health effects in the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract have been widely investigated in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying responsible mechanism is poorly described. By unravelling the probiotic-induced responses in a complex network of interacting signalling pathways, we(More)
BACKGROUND The tumor suppressor genes p15(INK)⁴(b) and p16(INK)⁴(a) as well as the estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) gene are abnormally methylated and expressed in colon cancer. The cancer-preventative abilities of several bioactive food components have been linked to their estrogenic and epigenetic activities. METHODS The effect of folic acid, zebularine,(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is accompanied by systemic low-grade inflammation with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is encoded by a gene (IL-6) previously shown to be regulated by DNA methylation. We investigated seven CpG sites in IL-6 in individuals with DMT2, obese individuals and lean controls. Further, the DMT2 group(More)
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is one of the main butyrate producers in the healthy human gut. Information on its genetic diversity is lacking, although two genetic phylotypes have been differentiated. In the present study, F. prausnitzii phylotypes were examined in faeces of obese and type two diabetes with similar eating behaviour compared to a lean control(More)
Type-2 diabetes is associated with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation accompanied by an increased production of adipokines/cytokines by obese adipose tissue. The search for new antidiabetic drugs with different mechanisms of action, such as insulin sensitizers, insulin secretagogues and α-glucosidase inhibitors, has directed the focus on the(More)
Obesity is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory markers. High levels of circulating free fatty acids and chronic inflammation lead to increased oxidative stress, contributing to the development of insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies have focused on the potential use of flavonoids for obesity management due to their antioxidant and(More)