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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) of the 3A family (CYP3A) has been detected in minipig liver microsomes by immunochemical screening (Western blotting), revealing bands that co-migrate with human CYP3A4 and 3A5. The nifedipine oxidase activity and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylating activity (specific markers for CYP3A enzymes) of the human liver microsomal and minipig(More)
In our study, we tested the hypothesis whether valproic acid (VPA) in therapeutic concentrations has potential to affect expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1 via constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) pathways. Interaction of VPA with CAR and PXR nuclear receptors was studied using luciferase reporter assays, real-time reverse(More)
Cytochrome P450 2E1 was isolated from minipig liver microsomes. The protein has been cloned and the respective cDNA sequenced (GenBank Accession Number AY581116). Minipig CYP2E1 is two residues shorter than its human ortholog. The only difference between pig and minipig sequence is the presence of aspartic acid residue in position 346 contrary to valine in(More)
Cytochromes P450 (henceforth P450s) are involved in a variety of metabolic and biosynthetic processes. The number of known P450 enzymes exceeds 1000, while the endogenous substrates of most of them remain unknown. All P450 enzymes exhibit similarity in their structure and general mechanism of action; however, there are significant differences in the(More)
BACKGROUND Phase II biotransformation reactions (also 'conjugation reactions') generally serve as a detoxifying step in drug metabolism. Phase II drug metabolising enzymes are mainly transferases. This review covers the major phase II enzymes: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, sulfotransferases, N-acetyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases and(More)
Silybin (a flavonolignan, the main component of silymarin, an extract from the seeds of Silybum marianum) has been used to date mostly as a hepatoprotectant. However, it also has other interesting activities, e.g., anticancer and hypocholesterolemic effects. It is also known that silybin can inhibit the activities of the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. In(More)
For the development of new drugs, evaluation of drug-drug interactions with already known compounds, as well as for better understanding of metabolism pathways of various toxicants and pollutants, we studied the drug metabolism mediated by cytochromes P450. The experimental approach is based on animal drug-metabolising systems. From the ethical as well as(More)
The flexibility of the structure and compressibility of the respective active site of cytochromes P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and BM-3 (CYP102) were studied using absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and visual regions. Conformational changes in the overall protein structures of both CYP3A4 and CYP102 due to the effects of temperature and pressure are(More)
Sufficient structural information on mammalian cytochromes P450 has now been published (including seventeen X-ray structures of these enzymes by June 2006) to allow characteristic features of these enzymes to be identified, including: (i) the presence of a common fold, typical of all P450s, (ii) similarities in the positioning of the heme cofactor, (iii)(More)