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The small Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 have each been shown to function in insulin exocytosis and are presumed to function in actin remodeling and insulin granule mobilization. However, whether either GTPase is required for the mobilization phase of insulin release (second phase) and are linked in a common signaling pathway has remained unknown. Here(More)
Type 2 diabetes has been coined "a two-hit disease," as it involves specific defects of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells in addition to defects in peripheral tissue insulin action required for glucose uptake. Both of these processes, insulin secretion and glucose uptake, are mediated by SNARE (soluble(More)
How the Sec1/Munc18-syntaxin complex might transition to form the SNARE core complex remains unclear. Toward this, Munc18c tyrosine phosphorylation has been correlated with its dissociation from syntaxin 4. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes subjected to small interfering ribonucleic acid reduction of Munc18c as a model of impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle(More)
The disruption of Munc18c binding to syntaxin 4 impairs insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle translocation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. To investigate the physiological function and requirement for Munc18c in the regulation of GLUT4 translocation and glucose homeostasis in vivo, we used homologous recombination to generate Munc18c-knockout (KO) mice. Homozygotic(More)
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is mediated by syntaxin 4-based SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein complexes and the Sec1/Munc18 protein Munc18c. Our laboratory recently reported that Munc18c-syntaxin 4 complexes are further regulated by the competitive binding of the double C2 domain protein Doc2beta(More)
The widely expressed Sec/Munc18 (SM) protein Munc18c is required for SNARE-mediated insulin granule exocytosis from islet beta cells and GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Although Munc18c function is known to involve binding to the t-SNARE Syntaxin 4, a paucity of Munc18c-binding proteins has restricted elucidation of the mechanism(More)
Glucose-induced insulin exocytosis is coupled to associations between F-actin and SNARE proteins, although the nature and function of these interactions remains unknown. Toward this end we show here that both Syntaxin 1A and Syntaxin 4 associated with F-actin in MIN6 cells and that each interaction was rapidly and transiently diminished by stimulation of(More)
Stimulus-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Munc18c was investigated as a potential regulatory mechanism by which the Munc18c-Syntaxin 4 complex can be dissociated in response to divergent stimuli in multiple cell types. Use of [(32)P]orthophosphate incorporation, pervanadate treatment, and phosphotyrosine-specific antibodies demonstrated that Munc18c(More)
Exocytosis of intracellular vesicles, such as insulin granules, is carried out by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. An additional regulatory protein, Doc2b (double C2 domain), has recently been implicated in exocytosis from clonal β-cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here, we investigated(More)
Attenuated levels of the Sec1/Munc18 (SM) protein Munc18-1 in human islet β-cells is coincident with type 2 diabetes, although how Munc18-1 facilitates insulin secretion remains enigmatic. Herein, using conventional Munc18-1(+/-) and β-cell specific Munc18-1(-/-) knock-out mice, we establish that Munc18-1 is required for the first phase of insulin(More)