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The prefrontal cortex (PFC), a key brain region controlling cognition and emotion, is strongly influenced by stress. While chronic stress often produces detrimental effects on these measures, acute stress has been shown to enhance learning and memory, predominantly through the action of corticosteroid stress hormones. We used a combination of(More)
Corticosteroid stress hormones have a strong impact on the function of prefrontal cortex (PFC), a central region controlling cognition and emotion, though the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We found that behavioral stressor or short-term corticosterone treatment in vitro induces a delayed and sustained potentiation of the synaptic response and surface(More)
The serotonin system and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) are both critically involved in the regulation of cognition and emotion under normal and pathological conditions; however, the interactions between them are essentially unknown. Here we show that serotonin, by activating 5-HT(1A) receptors, inhibited NMDA receptor-mediated ionic and(More)
The noradrenergic system in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in many physiological and psychological processes, including working memory and mood control. To understand the functions of the noradrenergic system, we examined the regulation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), key players in cognition and emotion, by alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors(More)
The density of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) at synapses regulates brain excitability, and altered inhibition may contribute to Huntington's disease, which is caused by a polyglutamine repeat in the protein huntingtin. However, the machinery that delivers GABA(A)Rs to synapses is unknown. We demonstrate that GABA(A)Rs are trafficked to synapses by the(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is defined by the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and can be caused by monogenic mutations of genes such as parkin. The lack of phenotype in parkin knockout mice suggests that human nigral DA neurons have unique vulnerabilities. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from normal subjects and PD patients(More)
Converging evidence suggests that females and males show different responses to stress; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying the sexually dimorphic effects of stress. In this study, we found that young female rats exposed to 1 week of repeated restraint stress show no negative effects on temporal order recognition memory (TORM), a(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a cation channel highly permeable to calcium and plays critical roles in governing normal and pathologic functions in neurons. Calcium entry through NMDA receptors (NMDARs) can lead to the activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease, calpain. Here we investigated the involvement of calpain in regulation of NMDAR(More)
Chronic stress could trigger maladaptive changes associated with stress-related mental disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we found that exposing juvenile male rats to repeated stress significantly impaired the temporal order recognition memory, a cognitive process controlled by the prefrontal cortex (PFC).(More)
GABAergic interneurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC) play a critical role in cortical circuits by providing feedforward and feedback inhibition and synchronizing neuronal activity. Impairments in GABAergic inhibition to PFC pyramidal neurons have been implicated in the abnormal neural synchrony and working memory disturbances in schizophrenia. The dopamine(More)