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OBJECTIVE The authors sought to assess the longitudinal course of youths with bipolar spectrum disorders over a 4-year period. METHOD At total of 413 youths (ages 7-17 years) with bipolar I disorder (N=244), bipolar II disorder (N=28), and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (N=141) were enrolled in the study. Symptoms were ascertained(More)
OBJECTIVE Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and problematic in bipolar disorder (BP). We prospectively examined predictors of first-onset SUD among adolescents with BP. METHOD Adolescents (12-17 years old; N = 167) in the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study fulfilling criteria for BP-I, BP-II, or operationalized BP not otherwise(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. METHOD Subjects were 140 children and adolescents recruited from(More)
Potential therapies are currently under development for two congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) subtypes: collagen VI-related muscular dystrophy (COL6-RD) and laminin alpha 2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). However, appropriate clinical outcome measures to be used in clinical trials have not been validated in CMDs. We conducted a two-year pilot study to(More)