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OBJECTIVE The authors sought to assess the longitudinal course of youths with bipolar spectrum disorders over a 4-year period. METHOD At total of 413 youths (ages 7-17 years) with bipolar I disorder (N=244), bipolar II disorder (N=28), and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (N=141) were enrolled in the study. Symptoms were ascertained(More)
OBJECTIVE Substance use disorders (SUD) are common and problematic in bipolar disorder (BP). We prospectively examined predictors of first-onset SUD among adolescents with BP. METHOD Adolescents (12-17 years old; N = 167) in the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study fulfilling criteria for BP-I, BP-II, or operationalized BP not otherwise(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. METHOD Subjects were 140 children and adolescents recruited from(More)
Abstract In order to localize neuroendocrine gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the monkey hypothalamus, four juvenile cynomolgus macaques (one female, three males) were each given two or three microinjections (0.2 to 0.3 mul per site) of the retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinin-apoHorseradish peroxidase-10 nm colloidal gold into the(More)
Potential therapies are currently under development for two congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) subtypes: collagen VI-related muscular dystrophy (COL6-RD) and laminin alpha 2-related dystrophy (LAMA2-RD). However, appropriate clinical outcome measures to be used in clinical trials have not been validated in CMDs. We conducted a two-year pilot study to(More)