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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Overactivation of the DNA repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) contributes to ischemic brain injury. Because PARP upregulates proinflammatory genes, we investigated whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a gene involved in the deleterious effects of postischemic inflammation, participates in the mechanisms by(More)
Src tyrosine kinases (TKs) are signaling proteins involved in cell signaling pathways toward cytoskeletal, membrane and nuclear targets. In the present study, using a selective Src TK inhibitor, PP1, we investigated the roles of Src TKs in the key pulmonary responses, NF-kappaB activation, and integrin signaling during acute lung injury in BALB/C mice(More)
Microglia activation plays a pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases, and thus controlling microglial activation has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we showed that ginsenoside Rh1 inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression(More)
C57BL/6 mice are known to be resistant to the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). However, they show a severe arthritic phenotype when the Ifng gene is deleted. Although it has been proposed that IFN-γ suppresses inflammation in CIA via suppressing Th17 which is involved in the pathogenesis of CIA, the exact molecular mechanism of the Th17(More)
This study investigated the effect of cinnamate, a phenolic compound found in cinnamon bark and other plant materials, on lipid metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Three groups of rats were given a diet containing 1 g of cholesterol/kg for 6 weeks. The control group only received the high cholesterol diet,(More)
The class B scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in the cytotoxicity associated with inflammation, but its role in the inflammatory reaction that accompanies cerebral ischemia has not been examined. In this study, we investigated whether CD36 contributes to the brain damage produced by cerebral ischemia. The middle cerebral artery was transiently occluded in(More)
Estrogens have antiinflammatory actions and protect the brain from ischemic injury. Cerebral ischemia is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction that contributes to the tissue damage, an effect mediated in part by toxic amounts of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS). Therefore, estrogens may protect the female brain by(More)
Ultrafine or fine titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles are widely used in the production of white pigments, for sunscreens, and in cleanup techniques. However, currently knowledge is deficient concerning cellular responses to these particles. The study evaluated and compared the biological activity of ultrafine and fine TiO(2) particles in RAW 264.7(More)
Nanoparticles are widely used in nanomedicines, including for targeted delivery of pharmacological, therapeutic, and diagnostic agents. Since nanoparticles might translocate across cellular barriers from the circulation into targeted organs, it is important to obtain information concerning the pathophysiologic effects of these particles through systemic(More)