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Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Mice treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) exhibit microglial activation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, and nigrostriatal DA neuronal damage, and thus serve as an experimental model of PD. Here, we report that(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation causes degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Here, we examined whether fluoxetine prevents LPS-induced degeneration of DA in the rat substantia nigra (SN) in vivo. Seven days after LPS injection into the SN, immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) revealed a significant loss of nigral(More)
Following MPTP administration, 4 Cynomolgus monkeys developed a parkinsonian syndrome, accompanied by specific changes of both pattern visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. Retinal dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid contents were measured in the 4 MPTP-treated monkeys and in 3 normal monkeys. Dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels were(More)
Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), also known as vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), is a nonselective cation channel that is activated by a variety of ligands, such as exogenous capsaicin (CAP) or endogenous anandamide (AEA), as well as products of lipoxygenases. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor(More)
Intranigral injection of the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1; also known as VR1) agonist capsaicin (CAP) into the rat brain, or treatment of rat mesencephalic cultures with CAP, resulted in cell death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, as visualized by immunocytochemistry. This in vivo and in vitro effect was ameliorated by the TRPV1(More)
We investigated the effects of synthetic cannabinoids, WIN55,212-2 and HU210, on LPS-injected rat substantia nigra in vivo. Intranigral injection of LPS resulted in a significant loss of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons, as determined by Nissl staining and TH immunohistochemistry. LPS-induced neurotoxicity was accompanied by microglial activation, as(More)
In the present study, we sought to determine whether bee venom (BV) promotes the survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Treatment with BV prevented degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). This neuro-protective effect of BV was associated with(More)
Epidemiological studies have reported that smoking is associated with a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD), leading to theories that smoking in general and nicotine in particular might be neuroprotective. Recent studies suggested cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway-regulating microglial activation through alpha7 nicotinic receptors. In the(More)
The present study shows that activation of microglial NADPH oxidase and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with thrombin-induced degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Seven days after thrombin injection in the rat substantia nigra (SN), tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry showed a significant loss of nigral(More)
Acetyl-levo-carnitine (ALC) protects against 1-methyl, 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced toxicity in the nonhuman primate. ALC pretreated monkeys do not show signs of parkinsonism or electroretinographic changes typical of dopaminergic deficiency when given MPTP. In addition, pilot neurochemical and morphological data confirm a partial(More)