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The villi of the human and chick gut are formed in similar stepwise progressions, wherein the mesenchyme and attached epithelium first fold into longitudinal ridges, then a zigzag pattern, and lastly individual villi. We find that these steps of villification depend on the sequential differentiation of the distinct smooth muscle layers of the gut, which(More)
This study describes novel quaternary ammonium beta-cyclodextrin (QAbetaCD) nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for doxorubicin (DOX), a hydrophobic anticancer drug, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). QAbetaCD nanoparticles show 65-88 nm hydrodynamic radii with controllable cationic properties by adjusting the incorporated amount of quaternary(More)
Removal of injured/damaged meniscus, a vital fibrocartilaginous load-bearing tissue, impairs normal knee function and predisposes patients to osteoarthritis. Meniscus tissue engineering solution is one option to improve outcomes and relieve pain. In an attempt to fabricate knee meniscus grafts three layered wedge shaped silk meniscal scaffold system was(More)
RGD-coupled silk protein-biomaterial lamellar systems were prepared and studied with human cornea fibroblasts (hCFs) to match functional requirements. A strategy for corneal tissue engineering was pursued to replicate the structural hierarchy of human corneal stroma within thin stacks of lamellae-like tissues, in this case constructed from scaffolds(More)
We describe a composite hydroxyapatite (HA)-silk fibroin scaffold designed to induce and support the formation of mineralized bone matrix by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the absence of osteogenic growth factors. Porous three-dimensional silk scaffolds were extensively used in our previous work for bone tissue engineering and showed excellent(More)
Scaffolds composed of synthetic, natural, and hybrid materials have been investigated as options to restore intervertebral disk (IVD) tissue function. These systems fall short of the lamellar features of the native annulus fibrosus (AF) tissue or focus only on the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. However, successful regeneration of the entire IVD requires a(More)
Charge carried by the surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) of the cerebral endothelium has been shown to significantly modulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to charged solutes in vivo. The cultured monolayer of bEnd3, an immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell line, is becoming a popular in vitro BBB model due to its easy growth and(More)
Novel biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles composed of β-cyclodextrin and poly(β-amino ester) segments have been developed for sustained drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The nanoparticles have been synthesized by cross-linking β-cyclodextrin with poly(β-amino ester) via the Michael addition method. The chemical, physical, and degradation(More)
Bone repairs represent a major focus in orthopedic medicine with biomaterials as a critical aspect of the regenerative process. However, only a limited set of biomaterials are utilized today and few studies relate biomaterial scaffold design to degradation rate and new bone formation. Matching biomaterial remodeling rate towards new bone formation is(More)
In the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine there is significant unmet need for critically-sized, fully degradable biomaterial scaffold systems with tunable properties for optimizing tissue formation in vitro and tissue regeneration in vivo. To address this need, we have developed a silk-based scaffold platform that has tunable material(More)