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Microglia activation plays a pivotal role in neurodegenerative diseases, and thus controlling microglial activation has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we showed that ginsenoside Rh1 inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression(More)
The class B scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in the cytotoxicity associated with inflammation, but its role in the inflammatory reaction that accompanies cerebral ischemia has not been examined. In this study, we investigated whether CD36 contributes to the brain damage produced by cerebral ischemia. The middle cerebral artery was transiently occluded in(More)
Estrogens have antiinflammatory actions and protect the brain from ischemic injury. Cerebral ischemia is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction that contributes to the tissue damage, an effect mediated in part by toxic amounts of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS). Therefore, estrogens may protect the female brain by(More)
We defined whether resveratrol administration during the acute phase of ischemic stroke reduces brain injury in mice. Infarct volumes were decreased significantly in both sexes with different doses of resveratrol (5mg/kg for males and 1mg/kg for females) administered 3h after ischemic stroke. Administration of resveratrol 6h after insult was also effective(More)
In the present study, we investigated the effect of ginseng extract (KRG) and total saponins (GTS) on microglial activation. KRG and GTS inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and proinflammatory cytokines in microglial cells. Suppression of microglial activation by ginseng was also observed in the mouse brain inflamed by LPS. Furthermore, KRG and(More)
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a phenomenon that organs develop a tolerance toward subsequent lethal ischemic insults. Among the factors that are involved in IP, IL-1beta and its endogenous receptor antagonist IL-1ra have been identified as important players in the induction of IP. The present study investigated whether IP affects the levels of these two(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists have roles in scar formation and regeneration after central nervous system injuries. However, temporal changes in their expression during astroglial scar formation in the ischemic brain are unknown. Here, we examined protein levels of BMP2, BMP7, and their antagonist noggin in the ischemic brain up to(More)
β-Lapachone (β-LAP) is a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia sp.), and it has been used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, infection, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether β-LAP has anti-inflammatory effects under in vitro and in vivo neuroinflammatory conditions. The effects of β-LAP on the(More)
Activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is implicated in neuronal survival. The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) activates a transcription factor CREB. Previously, we reported that N-acetyl-O-methyldopamine (NAMDA) protects neurons from ischemia via enhancing ERK dependent CREB(More)
We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their endogenous antagonist noggin are expressed in the brain weeks after an ischemic insult. Here, to define their roles in ischemic brain tissue repair and remodeling, we infused recombinant BMP7 or noggin into the ipsilateral ventricle of mice for 2weeks starting 2weeks after transient(More)