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The class B scavenger receptor CD36 is involved in the cytotoxicity associated with inflammation, but its role in the inflammatory reaction that accompanies cerebral ischemia has not been examined. In this study, we investigated whether CD36 contributes to the brain damage produced by cerebral ischemia. The middle cerebral artery was transiently occluded in(More)
Recent studies show that prostate cancer cells are able to survive in a hypoxic tumor environment, and the extent of tumor hypoxia correlates with poor clinical outcome. Androgen deprivation, the most common form of prostate cancer therapy, was itself shown to induce a state of transient hypoxia at the microenvironmental level. Because androgen receptor(More)
Estrogens have antiinflammatory actions and protect the brain from ischemic injury. Cerebral ischemia is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction that contributes to the tissue damage, an effect mediated in part by toxic amounts of nitric oxide (NO) produced by the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS). Therefore, estrogens may protect the female brain by(More)
BACKGROUND Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a critical component of interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate diverse cellular functions by triggering signal transduction events, such as Src and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Here, we report the role of caveolin-1 and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) in H2O2-induced signaling pathway in brain astrocytes. H2O2-mediated oxidative(More)
Adrenomedullin (ADM), a secretory peptide with multiple functions in physiological to pathological conditions, is upregulated in several human cancers, including brain, breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of ADM expression in cancerous cells are not fully understood. Here, we report that(More)
C57BL/6 mice are known to be resistant to the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). However, they show a severe arthritic phenotype when the Ifng gene is deleted. Although it has been proposed that IFN-γ suppresses inflammation in CIA via suppressing Th17 which is involved in the pathogenesis of CIA, the exact molecular mechanism of the Th17(More)
Less disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) after severe ischemic stroke is one of the beneficial outcomes of ischemic preconditioning (IP). However, the effect of IP on tight junctions (TJs), which regulate paracellular permeability of the BBB, is not well understood. In the present study, we examined IP-induced changes in TJs before and after middle(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists have roles in scar formation and regeneration after central nervous system injuries. However, temporal changes in their expression during astroglial scar formation in the ischemic brain are unknown. Here, we examined protein levels of BMP2, BMP7, and their antagonist noggin in the ischemic brain up to(More)
Resveratrol has several beneficial effects, including reductions of oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and apoptosis. It has been known that resveratrol is a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activator and protective effects of resveratrol are mediated by Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases. However, it is not examined whether these pathways are regulated by(More)