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The mammalian family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) includes extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), with each MAPK signaling pathway consisting of at least three components, a MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K), a MAPK kinase (MAP2K), and a MAPK. The MAPK pathways are activated by diverse extracellular(More)
The detection of thyroid nodules has become more common with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US). US is the mainstay for detecting and making the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for a biopsy. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the(More)
RATIONALE The increasing worldwide incidence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as a threat to public health and tuberculosis (TB) control. Treatment outcomes have varied among studies, and data on long-term survival are still scarce. OBJECTIVES To retrospectively assess the burden, clinical characteristics, treatment(More)
The severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is evaluated not only by airflow limitation but also by factors such as exercise capacity and body mass index. Recent advances in CT technology suggest that it might be a useful tool for evaluating the severity of the disease components of COPD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Several epidemiological studies have shown that coffee intake attenuates the progression of liver fibrosis; however, the mechanism is unclear. AIMS We investigated the direct effects of caffeine on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and assessed whether caffeine attenuated intrahepatic fibrosis in rat model of liver cirrhosis. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The prognosis of pulmonary fibrosis associated with scleroderma (PF-SSc) has been reported to be significantly better than that of IPF. Because the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia-pattern (NSIP), a newly defined subgroup of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), has better prognosis than the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern (UIP), we(More)
Genome editing is crucial for genetic engineering of organisms for improved traits, particularly in microalgae due to the urgent necessity for the next generation biofuel production. The most advanced CRISPR/Cas9 system is simple, efficient and accurate in some organisms; however, it has proven extremely difficult in microalgae including the model alga(More)
BACKGROUND Prone positioning for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has no impact on mortality despite significant improvements in oxygenation. However, a recent trial demonstrated reduced mortality rates in the prone position for severe ARDS. We evaluated effects of prone position duration and protective lung strategies on mortality rates in ARDS.(More)