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The mammalian family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) includes extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), with each MAPK signaling pathway consisting of at least three components, a MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K), a MAPK kinase (MAP2K), and a MAPK. The MAPK pathways are activated by diverse extracellular(More)
The severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is evaluated not only by airflow limitation but also by factors such as exercise capacity and body mass index. Recent advances in CT technology suggest that it might be a useful tool for evaluating the severity of the disease components of COPD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation(More)
The detection of thyroid nodules has become more common with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US). US is the mainstay for detecting and making the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for a biopsy. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the(More)
RATIONALE The increasing worldwide incidence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as a threat to public health and tuberculosis (TB) control. Treatment outcomes have varied among studies, and data on long-term survival are still scarce. OBJECTIVES To retrospectively assess the burden, clinical characteristics, treatment(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Appropriate use of propofol is necessary, and objective monitoring of sedation with propofol may be helpful. Studies on the efficacy of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in deep sedation have been conducted, but its efficacy in colonoscopy with moderate sedation is unknown. In this study, the efficacy of BIS monitoring during colonoscopy(More)
BACKGROUND Prone positioning for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has no impact on mortality despite significant improvements in oxygenation. However, a recent trial demonstrated reduced mortality rates in the prone position for severe ARDS. We evaluated effects of prone position duration and protective lung strategies on mortality rates in ARDS.(More)
PURPOSE The diagnosis and monitoring of liver fibrosis is an important clinical issue; however, this is usually achieved by invasive methods such as biopsy. We aimed to determine whether histogram analysis of hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide non-invasive quantitative measurement of liver(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate optimal indication of thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for detecting lateral metastatic lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS We performed a retrospective study of 241 lymph nodes of 220 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided FNA with Tg(More)