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Microglial cells are activated during excitotoxin-induced neurodegeneration. However, the in vivo role of micro-glia activation in neurodegeneration has not yet been fully elucidated. To this end, we used Ikkb conditional knockout mice (LysM-Cre/Ikkb F/F) in which the Ikkb gene is specifically deleted in cells of myeloid lineage, including microglia, in the(More)
The activation of spinal cord glial cells has been implicated in the development of neuropathic pain upon peripheral nerve injury. The molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell activation, however, have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that damaged sensory neurons induce the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta,(More)
Recent studies indicate that Toll-like receptors (TLRs), originally identified as infectious agent receptors, also mediate sterile inflammatory responses during tissue damage. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 in excitotoxic hippocampal cell death using TLR2 knock-out (KO) mice. TLR2 expression was up-regulated in microglia in the ipsilateral(More)
Increasing evidence supports the notion that spinal cord microglia activation plays a causal role in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury; yet the mechanisms for microglia activation remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-derived ROS production plays a critical role in nerve injury-induced spinal(More)
Microglial cells are activated during excitotoxin-induced neurodegeneration. However, the in vivo role of microglia activation in neurodegeneration has not yet been fully elucidated. To this end, we used Ikkbeta conditional knockout mice (LysM-Cre/Ikkbeta(F/F)) in which the Ikkbeta gene is specifically deleted in cells of myeloid lineage, including(More)
We examined the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nitric oxide synthase 2A, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha genes in tuberculosis patients and healthy controls from Mexico. The odds of developing tuberculosis were(More)
Schwann cells play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Upon nerve injury, Schwann cells are activated and produce various proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in the recruitment of macrophages and the phagocytosis of myelin debris. However, it is unclear how nerve injury induces Schwann cell activation. Recently, it was(More)
Despite the recent attention focused on the roles of the nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, little is known about the ex vivo profile of inflammasome activation in type 2 diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated patterns of NLRP3(More)
The "enhanced intracellular survival" (eis) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is involved in the intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. However, its exact effects on host cell function remain elusive. We herein report that Mtb Eis plays essential roles in modulating macrophage autophagy, inflammatory responses, and cell death via a reactive oxygen(More)
BACKGROUND Activated microglia elicits a robust amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the intracellular signaling mechanisms governing these inflammatory responses in microglia in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). (More)