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The activation of spinal cord glial cells has been implicated in the development of neuropathic pain upon peripheral nerve injury. The molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell activation, however, have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that damaged sensory neurons induce the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta,(More)
The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα; NR3B1) is a key metabolic regulator, but its function in regulating inflammation remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ERRα negatively regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced inflammation by promoting Tnfaip3 transcription and fine-tuning of metabolic reprogramming in(More)
Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1β. Among various inflammasome complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome is best characterized and has been linked with various human autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Thus, the NLRP3 inflammasome may be a promising(More)
We examined the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nitric oxide synthase 2A, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha genes in tuberculosis patients and healthy controls from Mexico. The odds of developing tuberculosis were(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The recent discovery of novel classes of receptors, including toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors is challenging the crucial role of the innate immune system in the recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present review is to focus on the roles and mechanisms of specific(More)
Microglial cells are activated during excitotoxin-induced neurodegeneration. However, the in vivo role of micro-glia activation in neurodegeneration has not yet been fully elucidated. To this end, we used Ikkb conditional knockout mice (LysM-Cre/Ikkb F/F) in which the Ikkb gene is specifically deleted in cells of myeloid lineage, including microglia, in the(More)
The current standard of treatment against tuberculosis consists of a cocktail of first-line drugs, including isoniazid and pyrazinamide. Although these drugs are known to be bactericidal, contribution of host cell responses in the context of antimycobacterial chemotherapy, if any, remains unknown. We demonstrate that isoniazid and pyrazinamide promote(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) or Mtb components and initiate mononuclear phagocyte responses that influence both innate and adaptive immunity. Recent studies have revealed the intracellular signalling cascades involved in the TLR-initiated immune response to mycobacterial infection. Although both TLR2 and TLR4 have(More)
Schwann cells play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Upon nerve injury, Schwann cells are activated and produce various proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in the recruitment of macrophages and the phagocytosis of myelin debris. However, it is unclear how nerve injury induces Schwann cell activation. Recently, it was(More)
Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal(More)