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We investigated the effects of different concentrations of auxin and auxin/cytokinin combinations, inoculum sizes and Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium dilutions on biomass and accumulation of total phenols and flavonoids in adventitious roots of Hypericum perforatum. The optimized conditions for the shake flask culture growth and secondary metabolites(More)
A multistep two-component signaling system is established as a key element of cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we provide evidence for a function of the two-component signaling system in cold stress response in Arabidopsis. Cold significantly induced the expression of a subset of A-type ARR genes and of GUS in Pro(ARR7):GUS transgenic Arabidopsis.(More)
The possible risk of colonic perforation during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for colorectal tumors is a barrier to wide application. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the risk and the predictive factors for perforation during ESD procedure. Between October 2006 and November 2010, a total of 499 consecutive patients (mean age 60.0(More)
The mutation or overexpression of alpha-synuclein protein plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In our preliminary experiments, we found that alpha-synuclein induced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (MMP-1, -3, -8, and -9) in rat primary cultured microglia. Thus, the current study was undertaken to determine the(More)
The overactivation of macrophages causes abnormal cell death and chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the modulation of macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity is expected to become a new therapeutic strategy for various inflammatory diseases. In this study, three types of short chain fatty acids (sodium butyrate (NaB), sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB), sodium(More)
Ammonium to nitrate ratios of 0:30, 5:25, 10:20, 15:15, 20:10, 25:5, and 30:0 mM were tested to determine the optimal NH(4)(+) :NO(3)(-) ratio for improving biomass and bioactive compound production in Eleutherococcus koreanum Nakai adventitious roots using 3-L bulb-type bubble bioreactors. A high ammonium nitrogen ratio had a negative effect on root(More)
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a useful therapeutic technique for colorectal tumors. However, for tumors larger than 20 mm, the chance of piecemeal resection is high. Recently introduced endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) enables en bloc resection regardless of the tumor size. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and outcomes of EMR,(More)
Plant cell and organ cultures have emerged as potential sources of secondary metabolites, which are used as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, fragrances, coloring agents, biopesticides, and food additives. In recent years, various strategies have been developed to assess biomass accumulation and synthesis of secondary compounds in cultures. Biomass(More)
The increasing global demand for biomass of medicinal plant resources reflects the issues and crisis created by diminishing renewable resources and increasing consumer populations. Moreover, diverse usage of plants and reduced land for cultivation in the world accelerated the deficiency of plant resources. In addition, the preparation of safety of plant(More)
In an attempt to improve growth and secondary metabolite production, and to understand the possible mechanism involved in relation to the changes in physiology and activities of antioxidant enzymes, we cultured Morinda citrifolia adventitious roots in different strength (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented(More)