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Plant cell and organ cultures have emerged as potential sources of secondary metabolites, which are used as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, fragrances, coloring agents, biopesticides, and food additives. In recent years, various strategies have been developed to assess biomass accumulation and synthesis of secondary compounds in cultures. Biomass(More)
The effect of initial sucrose concentration was investigated in root suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia to improve root growth and secondary metabolites production, i.e. anthraquinone, phenolics and flavonoids. Besides, oxidative stress level, antioxidant enzymes activity and membranes damage under different sucrose concentration were estimated. A 5%(More)
As there is growth in the need of applications such as video conferencing and interactive chatting, secure group communication is an important research area. Security in these applications is necessary to provide services like privacy, data-integrity, and non-repudiation to group members. A naive way to achieve security in such groups is to have a secret(More)
In the present study, we investigated the effect of ginseng extract (KRG) and total saponins (GTS) on microglial activation. KRG and GTS inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and proinflammatory cytokines in microglial cells. Suppression of microglial activation by ginseng was also observed in the mouse brain inflamed by LPS. Furthermore, KRG and(More)
β-Lapachone (β-LAP) is a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia sp.), and it has been used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, infection, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether β-LAP has anti-inflammatory effects under in vitro and in vivo neuroinflammatory conditions. The effects of β-LAP on the(More)
Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a stable derivative of pyruvate and has been identified as a therapeutic agent for various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we showed that EP and sodium pyruvate (SP) inhibited the production of TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO), or reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The inhibitory effects of EP(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can protect bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients from the lethal acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) development. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of MSCs in aGVHD remain to be elucidated. The immunoregulatory properties of MSCs are mediated by their production of anti-inflammatory(More)
The neutrophil collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP8) is a recently identified member of MMPs that have important roles in various inflammation-related disorders. Previously, we identified MMP8 as a new neuroinflammatory mediator in activated microglia by regulating TNF-α productivity. Here, we present evidence that MMP8 is a critical factor for(More)