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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate our sense of vision, smell, taste, and pain. They are also involved in cell recognition and communication processes, and hence have emerged as a prominent superfamily for drug targets. Unfortunately, the atomic-level structure is available for only one GPCR (bovine rhodopsin), making it difficult to use(More)
We examined the possibility that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) might be involved in intracellular signaling cascades that mediate NMDA-initiated neuronal events. Exposure of cortical neurons to 100 microM NMDA induced activation of JNK within 1 min. Activity of JNK was further increased over the next 5 min and then(More)
In this study, we examined the possibility that MPTP and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) act on distinct cell death pathways in a murine dopaminergic neuronal cell line, MN9D. First, we found that cells treated with 6-OHDA accompanied ultrastructural changes typical of apoptosis, whereas MPP+ treatment induced necrotic manifestations. Proteolytic cleavage of(More)
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis, is predominantly expressed in several cell groups within the brain, including the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, and the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus. To investigate the regulation of cell type-specific TH(More)
The stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), which are identical to the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs), are activated in response to a variety of cellular stresses, including DNA damage, heat shock or tumour-necrosis factor-alpha. SAPK, a subfamily of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, is a major protein kinase that phosphorylates c-Jun and(More)
Acupuncture treatment is generally regarded as a relatively safe procedure. However, most procedures have some complications and acupuncture treatment is no exception. Reported complications of acupuncture treatment were mostly mild or temporary symptoms, but certain severe adverse effects were also observed. We report here for the first time a case of(More)
NO, produced from l-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by NO synthase, is an endogenous free radical with multiple functions in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that endogenously produced NO can suppress c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in intact cells. Treatment of BV-2 murine microglial cells with IFN-gamma induced endogenous NO production,(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There are currently few studies on clinical profiles of reflex epilepsy induced by thinking and spatial tasks. We studied the clinical characteristics of reflex epilepsy induced by playing oriental card and board games. METHODS This study included 17 patients who presented with seizures that occur predominantly while playing games.(More)
PURPOSE To identify the probable etiologies and characteristics of new-onset seizures after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and to assess their clinical implications and prognosis. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, electrophysiologic and laboratory data of 17 patients with new-onset seizures after OLT among 367 adult and pediatric(More)