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Astrocytes promote the formation and function of excitatory synapses in the CNS. However, whether and how astrocytes modulate inhibitory synaptogenesis are essentially unknown. We asked whether astrocytes regulate the formation of inhibitory synapses between hippocampal neurons during maturation in vitro. Neuronal coculture with astrocytes or treatment with(More)
Synapse formation in the CNS is a complex process that involves the dynamic interplay of numerous signals exchanged between pre- and postsynaptic neurons as well as perisynaptic glia. Members of the neurotrophin family, which are widely expressed in the developing and mature CNS and are well-known for their roles in promoting neuronal survival and(More)
Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator that can excite and sensitize primary afferent neurones. The nature of the ionic channels underlying the excitatory actions of BK is still incompletely understood. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording from acutely dissociated nodose ganglion neurones (NGNs) we have examined the ionic mechanism responsible for(More)
Sympathetic nerves innervate the airways of most species but their reflex regulation has been essentially unstudied. Here we demonstrate sympathetic nerve-mediated reflex relaxation of airway smooth muscle measured in situ in the guinea-pig trachea. Retrograde tracing, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiological analysis identified a population of(More)
The effect of reducing extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) on vagal afferent excitability was analyzed in a guinea pig isolated vagally innervated trachea-bronchus preparation. Afferent fibers were characterized as either having low-threshold, rapidly adapting mechanosensors (Adelta fibers) or nociceptive-like phenotypes (Adelta and C fibers).(More)
Exogenously applied tachykinins produce no measurable electrophysiological responses in the somata of vagal afferent neurons [nodose ganglion neurons (NGNs)] isolated from naive guinea pigs. By contrast, after in vitro antigen challenge of nodose ganglia from guinea pigs immunized with chick ovalbumin, approximately 60% (53 of 89) of NGNs were depolarized(More)
Adult inferior vagal ganglion neurons (nodose ganglion neurons, NGNs) were acutely isolated 4-6 days after section of their peripheral axons (vagotomy) and examined with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. A subset (approximately 25 %) of vagotomized NGNs displayed depolarizing after-potentials (DAPs), not present in control NGNs. DAPs were inhibited by(More)
The cell bodies of spinal afferents, dorsal root ganglion neurons, are depolarized several millivolts, and their probability of spiking increased when axons of neighboring somata in the same ganglion are electrically stimulated repetitively. This form of neural communication has been designated cross-depolarization (CD) and cross-excitation (CE). The(More)
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