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Glial-lial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been isolated as neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Because of its neurotrophic activity on a wide range of neuronal populations in vitro and in vivo, GDNF is being considered as a potential therapeutic agent for neuronal disorders. During mammalian development, it is expressed(More)
To gain insight into the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms in rodents, we disrupted the ligand-binding domain of the alpha isoform of mouse PPAR (mPPAR alpha) by homologous recombination. Mice homozygous for the mutation lack expression of mPPAR alpha protein and yet are viable and fertile and exhibit no detectable gross(More)
While most effects of dopamine in the brain are mediated by the D1 and D2 receptor subtypes, other members of this G protein-coupled receptor family have potentially important functions. D3 receptors belong to the D2-like subclass of dopamine receptors, activation of which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. Using targeted mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells,(More)
Of the five known dopamine receptors, D1A and D2 represent the major subtypes expressed in the striatum of the adult brain. Within the striatum, these two subtypes are differentially distributed in the two main neuronal populations that provide direct and indirect pathways between the striatum and the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. Movement disorders,(More)
During pituitary organogenesis, the progressive differentiation of distinct pituitary-specific cell lineages from a common primordium involves a series of developmental decisions and inductive interactions. Targeted gene disruption in mice showed that Lhx3, a LIM homeobox gene expressed in the pituitary throughout development, is essential for(More)
Perfusion- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed during spontaneous visual auras in four migraineurs. Alterations in relative cerebral blood flow (16-53% decrease), cerebral blood volume (6-33% decrease), and tissue mean transit time (10-54% increase) were observed in the gray matter of occipital cortex contralateral to the(More)
An efficient and accurate method for controlled in vivo transgene modulation by site-directed recombination is described. Seven transgenic mouse founder lines were produced carrying the murine lens-specific alpha A-crystallin promoter and the simian virus 40 large tumor-antigen gene sequence, separated by a 1.3-kilobase-pair Stop sequence that contains(More)
This study has examined the stereoselective disposition of the enantiomers of ibuprofen in four healthy male subjects following separate administration of racemic ibuprofen (800 mg) and of each enantiomer (400 mg). A mean of 63 +/- 6% of an administered dose of R(-) ibuprofen was stereospecifically inverted to the S(+) enantiomer. There were no measurable(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of ultrasonography for the detection of twisted vascular pedicle in ovarian torsion and to verify whether the blood flow alterations in the twisted vascular pedicle on color Doppler sonography can predict the viability of adnexal structures. In 28 of 32 patients with surgically proved torsion, the(More)
The goal of this phase II multicenter clinical trial was to evaluate a new intensive chemotherapy program for adults with untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to examine prospectively the impact of clinical and biologic characteristics on the outcome. One hundred ninety-seven eligible and evaluable patients (16 to 80 years of age; median, 32(More)