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Potassium is the most abundant cation and a myriad of transporters regulate K(+) homeostasis in plant. Potassium plays a role as a major osmolyte to regulate stomatal movements that control water utility of land plants. Here we report the characterization of two inward rectifying shaker-like potassium channels, OsKAT2 and OsKAT3, expressed in guard cell of(More)
An increasing number of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry have caused serious economic losses and raised concerns for human health due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. However, licensed H5N1 and H9N2 vaccines for animals and humans have not been developed. Thus, to develop a dual H5N1 and H9N2 live-attenuated influenza(More)
Shaker-like potassium channels are highly conserved voltage-dependent ion channels in plants. Rice, a monocot model plant, has similar numbers of shaker-like potassium channels as Arabidopsis. Although several inward-rectifying potassium channels have been identified, no outward-rectifying potassium channels have yet been reported for rice. Here, we(More)
The core components of ABA-dependent gene expression signaling have been identified in Arabidopsis and rice. This signaling pathway consists of four major components; group A OsbZIPs, SAPKs, subclass A OsPP2Cs and OsPYL/RCARs in rice. These might be able to make thousands of combinations through interaction networks resulting in diverse signaling responses.(More)
Protein phosphatase 2C clade A members are major signaling components in the ABA-dependent signaling cascade that regulates seed germination. To elucidate the role of PP2CA genes in germination of rice seed, we selected OsPP2C51, which shows highly specific expression in the embryo compared with other protein phosphatases based on microarray data. GUS(More)
This study was conducted to determine whether CD4 T cell responses to citrullinated fibrinogen occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), especially in HLA-DR4-positive subjects. Whole peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of RA patients and control subjects were stimulated with citrullinated fibrinogen peptides, and T-cell production of(More)
Avian influenza A virus (AIV) is commonly isolated from domestic poultry and wild migratory birds, and the H9N2 subtype is the most prevalent and the major cause of severe disease in poultry in Korea. In addition to the veterinary concerns regarding the H9N2 subtype, it is also considered to be the next potential human pandemic strain due to its rapid(More)
Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, has been utilized as a traditional medicine to treat various human diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the immune-enhancing activity of Graviola leaf extracts in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Active ingredients in Graviola leaf extracts (GE) were identified as kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and(More)
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