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In order to define the histopathological substrate of the dementia that frequently complicates the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), we analyzed the neuropathological findings in 70 autopsied adult AIDS patients, 46 of whom had suffered clinically overt dementia. Less than 10% of the brains were histologically normal. Abnormalities were found(More)
In the brains and spinal cords of 153 adult patients dying with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at New York and Memorial Hospitals a subacute encephalitis with multinucleated cells was present in 28% of all patients. This encephalitis was characterized by multinucleated cells primarily located in the white matter and associated with myelin pallor(More)
The relationship between plaque pathology and disease duration was examined in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis who died early in the course of their illness. Myelin-stained sections revealed that most plaques examined in patients who died during the first month of their illness showed evidence of ongoing myelin destruction accompanied by a loss of(More)
Twenty-three plaques obtained at early autopsy from 2 patients with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis were examined immunohistochemically for microglia/macrophages, and for immunoglobulins and components of activated complement. Most of the lesions examined in both cases exhibited evidence of low-grade active demyelination of an unusual type(More)
Recent autopsy studies suggest that remyelinated shadow plaques located in otherwise intact white matter are the outcome of a previous single episode of acute demyelination. In the present study, of 98 remyelinated plaques examined in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis who died between 27 days and 5 years after clinical onset, 15 showed evidence of a(More)
Plaques with lipid macrophages and macrophages containing undigested myelin fragments from five multiple sclerosis patients were studied by light microscopy of epoxy-embedded tissue (five cases) and electron microscopy (one case). Cell counts determined electron microscopically revealed that oligodendrocytes were reduced in number in areas of commencing(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) was studied in rats with electrolyte-induced demyelination (EID), an experimental model for central pontine myelinolysis. Intravenously injected peroxidase was extravasated at 3 h post hypertonic saline injection (PHS) into regions frequently involved in EID. Increased pinocytotic activity and focal interendothelial gaps were(More)
This study presents the electron microscopic evolution of lesions in electrolyte-induced demyelination (EID) in rats, a lesion which bears striking histological and clinical similarity to central pontine myelinolysis. The earliest change was observed during the hyponatremic phase and consisted of minimal intracellular edema present throughout the brain.(More)
Electrolyte-induced demyelination (EID), an experimental model for central pontine myelinolysis was produced in rats by inducing hyponatremia followed by hypernatremia. There was a marked reduction in the number and size of lesions developing in animals that were bled repeatedly by tail transection during induction of the disease. Subsequently a similar(More)