Eugenio Santos

Learn More
Alcohol consumption is a moderately heritable trait, but the genetic basis in humans is largely unknown, despite its clinical and societal importance. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of ∼2.5 million directly genotyped or imputed SNPs with alcohol consumption (gram per day per kilogram body weight) among 12 population-based samples of(More)
Myopia and hyperopia are at opposite ends of the continuum of refraction, the measure of the eye's ability to focus light, which is an important cause of visual impairment (when aberrant) and is a highly heritable trait. We conducted a genome-wide association study for refractive error in 4,270 individuals from the TwinsUK cohort. We identified SNPs on(More)
Somatic, gain-of-function mutations in ras genes were the first specific genetic alterations identified in human cancer about 3 decades ago. Studies during the last quarter century have characterized the Ras proteins as essential components of signaling networks controlling cellular proliferation, differentiation, or survival. The oncogenic mutations of the(More)
We have used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) devoid of Ras proteins to illustrate that they are essential for proliferation and migration, but not for survival, at least in these cells. These properties are unique to the Ras subfamily of proteins because ectopic expression of other Ras-like small GTPases, even when constitutively active, could not(More)
The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) was assessed in Xenopus oocytes expressing the human trk proto-oncogene product, p140prototrk. Oocytes injected with trk messenger RNA expressed polypeptides recognized by antibodies to the trk gene product. Exposure of these oocytes to nanomolar amounts of NGF resulted in specific surface binding of 125I-labeled NGF,(More)
H-ras, N-ras, and K-ras are canonical ras gene family members frequently activated by point mutation in human cancers and coding for 4 different, highly related protein isoforms (H-Ras, N-Ras, K-Ras4A, and K-Ras4B). Their expression is nearly ubiquitous and broadly conserved across eukaryotic species, although there are quantitative and qualitative(More)
RasGrf1 and RasGrf2 are highly homologous mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factors which are able to activate specific Ras or Rho GTPases. The RasGrf genes are preferentially expressed in the central nervous system, although specific expression of either locus may also occur elsewhere. RasGrf1 is a paternally-expressed, imprinted gene that is expressed(More)
RasGRF1 is a Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor implicated in a variety of physiological processes including learning and memory and glucose homeostasis. To determine the role of RASGRF1 in aging, lifespan and metabolic parameters were analyzed in aged RasGrf1(-/-) mice. We observed that mice deficient for RasGrf1(-/-) display an increase in average and(More)
The genetic change that leads to the activation of the oncogene in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells is shown to be a single point mutation of guanosine into thymidine. This substitution results in the incorporation of valine instead of glycine as the twelfth amino acid residue of the T24 oncogene-encoded p21 protein. Thus, a single amino acid substitution(More)
Mammalian cells harbor three highly homologous and widely expressed members of the ras family (H-ras, N-ras, and K-ras), but it remains unclear whether they play specific or overlapping cellular roles. To gain insight into such functional roles, here we generated and analyzed H-ras null mutant mice, which were then also bred with N-ras knockout animals to(More)