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Because ribosome biogenesis plays an essential role in cell proliferation, control mechanisms may have evolved to recognize lesions in this critical anabolic process. To test this possibility, we conditionally deleted the gene encoding 40S ribosomal protein S6 in the liver of adult mice. Unexpectedly, livers from fasted animals deficient in S6 grew in(More)
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by arylsulfatase A (ARSA) deficiency. Patients with MLD exhibit progressive motor and cognitive impairment and die within a few years of symptom onset. We used a lentiviral vector to transfer a functional ARSA gene into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from three(More)
Targeted genome editing by artificial nucleases has brought the goal of site-specific transgene integration and gene correction within the reach of gene therapy. However, its application to long-term repopulating haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has remained elusive. Here we show that poor permissiveness to gene transfer and limited proficiency of the(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector holds promise for gene therapy. Despite a low frequency of chromosomal integration of vector genomes, recent studies have raised concerns about the risk of rAAV integration because integration occurs preferentially in genes and accompanies chromosomal deletions, which may lead to loss-of-function insertional(More)
Eukaryotic protein kinases are part of a large and expanding family of proteins. Through our transcriptional mapping effort in the Xp22 region, we have isolated and sequenced the full-length transcript of STK9, a novel cDNA highly homologous to serine-threonine kinases. A number of human genetic disorders have been mapped to the region where STK9 has been(More)
Insertional mutagenesis represents a major hurdle to gene therapy and necessitates sensitive preclinical genotoxicity assays. Cdkn2a-/- mice are susceptible to a broad range of cancer-triggering genetic lesions. We exploited hematopoietic stem cells from these tumor-prone mice to assess the oncogenicity of prototypical retroviral and lentiviral vectors. We(More)
Phenylalanine homeostasis in mammals is primarily controlled by liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity. Inherited PAH deficiency (phenylketonuria or PKU) leads to hyperphenylalaninemia in both mice and humans. A low level of residual liver PAH activity ensures near-normal dietary protein tolerance with normal serum phenylalanine level, but the(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) is a promising vector for gene therapy because it can achieve long-term stable transgene expression in animals and human subjects after direct administration of vectors into various target tissues. In the liver, although stable transgene expression primarily results from extrachromosomal vector genomes,(More)
We have recently reported isolation of the gene responsible for X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome, a defect of midline development. MID1 is located on the distal short arm of the human X chromosome (Xp22. 3) and encodes a novel member of the B box family of zinc finger proteins. We have now cloned the murine homolog of MID1 and performed preliminary expression(More)
The MID1 gene in Xp22 codes for a novel member of proteins containing a RING finger, B-box, coiled-coil and a conserved C-terminal domain. Initially, three mutations in the C-terminal region were found in patients with Opitz G/BBB syndrome, a defect of midline development. Here we have determined the complete gene structure of the MID1 gene and have(More)