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Because ribosome biogenesis plays an essential role in cell proliferation, control mechanisms may have evolved to recognize lesions in this critical anabolic process. To test this possibility, we conditionally deleted the gene encoding 40S ribosomal protein S6 in the liver of adult mice. Unexpectedly, livers from fasted animals deficient in S6 grew in(More)
We have recently reported isolation of the gene responsible for X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome, a defect of midline development. MID1 is located on the distal short arm of the human X chromosome (Xp22. 3) and encodes a novel member of the B box family of zinc finger proteins. We have now cloned the murine homolog of MID1 and performed preliminary expression(More)
The B-box family is an expanding new family of genes encoding proteins involved in diverse cellular functions such as developmental patterning and oncogenesis. A member of this protein family, MID1, is the gene responsible for the X-linked form of Opitz G/BBB syndrome, a developmental disorder characterized by defects of the midline structures. We now(More)
Targeted genome editing by artificial nucleases has brought the goal of site-specific transgene integration and gene correction within the reach of gene therapy. However, its application to long-term repopulating haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has remained elusive. Here we show that poor permissiveness to gene transfer and limited proficiency of the(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector holds promise for gene therapy. Despite a low frequency of chromosomal integration of vector genomes, recent studies have raised concerns about the risk of rAAV integration because integration occurs preferentially in genes and accompanies chromosomal deletions, which may lead to loss-of-function insertional(More)
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by arylsulfatase A (ARSA) deficiency. Patients with MLD exhibit progressive motor and cognitive impairment and die within a few years of symptom onset. We used a lentiviral vector to transfer a functional ARSA gene into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from three(More)
Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) is a promising vector for gene therapy because it can achieve long-term stable transgene expression in animals and human subjects after direct administration of vectors into various target tissues. In the liver, although stable transgene expression primarily results from extrachromosomal vector genomes,(More)
gamma-Retroviral vectors (gammaRVs), which are commonly used in gene therapy, can trigger oncogenesis by insertional mutagenesis. Here, we have dissected the contribution of vector design and viral integration site selection (ISS) to oncogenesis using an in vivo genotoxicity assay based on transplantation of vector-transduced tumor-prone mouse hematopoietic(More)
Recent reports have indicated that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) vectors preferentially integrate into active genes. Here, we used a novel approach based on genetic trapping to rapidly score several thousand integration sites and found that MLV vectors trapped cellular promoters more efficiently than HIV vectors.(More)
A recent clinical trial for adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) showed the efficacy and safety of lentiviral vector (LV) gene transfer in hematopoietic stem progenitor cells. However, several common insertion sites (CIS) were found in patients' cells, suggesting that LV integrations conferred a selective advantage. We performed high-throughput LV integration site(More)