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Recently, a remarkable progress has been made in our understanding about the role of sex steroids in male physiology. In this paper, we consider the clinical aspects of congenital estrogen deficiency - notably, estrogen resistance and aromatase deficiency - in men and we discuss both well-established and supposed estrogen roles in the human male(More)
BACKGROUND The 2NN Study was a randomised comparison of the non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) nevirapine and efavirenz. METHODS In this multicentre, open-label, randomised trial, 1216 antiretroviral-therapy-naive patients were assigned nevirapine 400 mg once daily, nevirapine 200 mg twice daily, efavirenz 600 mg once daily, or(More)
Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory disease in childhood throughout the world. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents are available to support medical decisions on pediatric asthma. Although there is no doubt that the use of common systematic approaches for management can considerably improve outcomes, dissemination and implementation(More)
We propose an innovative, integrated, cost-effective health system to combat major non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular, chronic respiratory, metabolic, rheumatologic and neurologic disorders and cancers, which together are the predominant health problem of the 21st century. This proposed holistic strategy involves comprehensive(More)
UNLABELLED Asthma drugs are amongst the most frequently used drugs in childhood, but international comparisons on type and indication of use are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe asthma drug use in children with and without asthma in the Netherlands (NL), Italy (IT), and the United Kingdom (UK). We conducted a retrospective analysis of(More)
Measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled air is an exciting innovative technique that gives new insights in to the pathophysiology of lung disease and asthma in particular, with many potential clinical applications. Careful standardisation of measurement techniques will facilitate the use of this new measurement in paediatric respiratory(More)
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is associated with abnormalities in lung function during infancy, yet many infants recover with no respiratory problems in the long term. We therefore did a longitudinal study of pulmonary function in 18 children with moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced mid-expiratory(More)
OBJECTIVES Recent studies have explored the potential for swimming pool disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are respiratory irritants, to cause asthma in young children. Here we describe the state of the science on methods for understanding children's exposure to DBPs and biologics at swimming pools and associations with new-onset childhood asthma and(More)
Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is a common and serious complication in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Micafungin has been shown to have dose-related efficacy and to be well tolerated in patients with HIV and EC. This analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind study examined pharmacokinetic parameters of micafungin (dosed(More)