Eugene Valkov

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Integrase is an essential retroviral enzyme that binds both termini of linear viral DNA and inserts them into a host cell chromosome. The structure of full-length retroviral integrase, either separately or in complex with DNA, has been lacking. Furthermore, although clinically useful inhibitors of HIV integrase have been developed, their mechanism of action(More)
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain occurs in animal and plant immune receptors. In the animal Toll-like receptors, homodimerization of the intracellular TIR domain is required for initiation of signaling cascades leading to innate immunity. By contrast, the role of the TIR domain in cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant(More)
Lens epithelium derived growth factor (LEDGF), also known as PC4 and SFRS1 interacting protein 1 (PSIP1) and transcriptional co-activator p75, is the cellular binding partner of lentiviral integrase (IN) proteins. LEDGF accounts for the characteristic propensity of Lentivirus to integrate within active transcription units and is required for efficient viral(More)
Establishment of the stable provirus is an essential step in retroviral replication, orchestrated by integrase (IN), a virus-derived enzyme. Until now, available structural information was limited to the INs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), avian sarcoma virus (ASV) and their close orthologs from the Lentivirus and Alpharetrovirus genera.(More)
Initiation of the innate immune response requires agonist recognition by pathogen-recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptors are critical in orchestrating the signal transduction pathways after TLR and interleukin-1 receptor activation. Myeloid differentiation primary response(More)
Upon activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains of the receptors undergo homo- or heterodimerization. This in turn leads to the recruitment of adaptor proteins, activation of transcription factors, and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have described the TIR domain-containing(More)
Transition row metal ions are both essential and toxic to microorganisms. Zinc in excess has significant toxicity to bacteria, and host release of Zn(II) at mucosal surfaces is an important innate defence mechanism. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Zn(II) affords protection have not been defined. We show that in Streptococcus pneumoniae(More)
Molecular replacement procedures, which search for placements of a starting model within the crystallographic unit cell that best account for the measured diffraction amplitudes, followed by automatic chain tracing methods, have allowed the rapid solution of large numbers of protein crystal structures. Despite extensive work, molecular replacement or the(More)
We have investigated the potential of the GTP synthesis pathways as chemotherapeutic targets in the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, a common cause of fatal fungal meningoencephalitis. We find that de novo GTP biosynthesis, but not the alternate salvage pathway, is critical to cryptococcal dissemination and survival in vivo. Loss of inosine(More)
The NXF1:NXT1 complex (also known as TAP:p15) is a general mRNA nuclear export factor that is conserved from yeast to humans. NXF1 is a modular protein constructed from four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA domains). It is currently unclear how NXF1:NXT1 binds transcripts and whether there is higher organization of the NXF1 domains. We report here the(More)