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We have generated mice that carry a germline mutation in which a large portion of the RAG-2 coding region is deleted. Homozygous mutants are viable but fail to produce mature B or T lymphocytes. Very immature lymphoid cells were present in primary lymphoid organs of mutant animals as defined by surface marker analyses and Abelson murine leukemia virus(More)
Mammals contend with a universe of evolving pathogens by generating an enormous diversity of antigen receptors during lymphocyte development. Precursor B and T cells assemble functional immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes via recombination of numerous variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments. Although this combinatorial(More)
The transcription factor BATF controls the differentiation of interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) by regulating expression of the transcription factor RORγt itself and RORγt target genes such as Il17. Here we report the mechanism by which BATF controls in vivo class-switch recombination (CSR). In T cells, BATF directly controlled(More)
Cells maintain the integrity of their genome through an intricate network of repair systems that recognize and remove lesions from DNA. The only known site-directed recombination process in vertebrates is the V(D)J recombination of lymphocyte antigen receptor genes. A large panel of cell lines deficient in DNA repair were tested for the ability to perform(More)
The immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) gene locus undergoes radial repositioning within the nucleus and locus contraction in preparation for gene recombination. We demonstrate that IgH locus conformation involves two levels of chromosomal compaction. At the first level, the locus folds into several multilooped domains. One such domain at the 3' end of the(More)
The assembly of Ag receptor genes by V(D)J recombination is regulated by transcriptional promoters and enhancers which control chromatin accessibility at Ig and TCR gene segments to the RAG-1/RAG-2 recombinase complex. Paradoxically, germline deletions of the IgH enhancer (Emu) only modestly reduce D(H)-->J(H) rearrangements when assessed in peripheral B(More)
A screen for early markers of B-lymphocyte differentiation has identified a homeobox gene, denoted LH-2, that has a pattern of expression distinct from that of other related genes. The LH-2 cDNA sequence encodes a polypeptide of 426 amino acids that contains a homeodomain and two repeats of a cysteine-rich domain referred to as a LIM domain. The homeodomain(More)
A low molecular weight toxin isolated from the venom of the digger wasp Philanthus triangulum, first noted by T. Piek, is a potent antagonist of transmission at quisqualate-sensitive glutamate synapses of locust leg muscle. This philanthotoxin 433 (PTX-433) has been purified, chemically characterized, and subsequently synthesized along with two closely(More)
The gene FUS (also known as TLS (for translocated in liposarcoma) and hnRNP P2) is translocated with the gene encoding the transcription factor ERG-1 in human myeloid leukaemias. Although the functions of wild-type FUS are unknown, the protein contains an RNA-recognition motif and is a component of nuclear riboprotein complexes. FUS resembles a(More)
Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 function in a protein complex that is central to the metabolism of chromosome breaks. Null mutants of each are inviable. We demonstrate here that hypomorphic Rad50 mutant mice (Rad50(S/S) mice) exhibited growth defects and cancer predisposition. Rad50(S/S) mice died with complete bone marrow depletion as a result of progressive(More)