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- Charles L . Kane, Eugene J. Mele
- Physical review letters
- 2005

We study the effects of spin orbit interactions on the low energy electronic structure of a single plane of graphene. We find that in an experimentally accessible low temperature regime the symmetry allowed spin orbit potential converts graphene from an ideal two-dimensional semimetallic state to a quantum spin Hall insulator. This novel electronic state of… (More)

- Liang Fu, Charles L . Kane, Eugene J. Mele
- Physical review letters
- 2007

We study three-dimensional generalizations of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect. Unlike two dimensions, where a single Z2 topological invariant governs the effect, in three dimensions there are 4 invariants distinguishing 16 phases with two general classes: weak (WTI) and strong (STI) topological insulators. The WTI are like layered 2D QSH states, but are… (More)

- Charles L . Kane, Eugene J. Mele
- Physical review letters
- 2005

The quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is a time reversal invariant electronic state with a bulk electronic band gap that supports the transport of charge and spin in gapless edge states. We show that this phase is associated with a novel Z2 topological invariant, which distinguishes it from an ordinary insulator. The Z2 classification, which is defined for time… (More)

A theory of the long-wavelength low-energy electronic structure of graphite-derived nanotubules is presented. The propagating p electrons are described by wrapping a massless two dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian onto a curved surface. The effects of the tubule size, shape, and symmetry are included through an effective vector potential which we derive for this… (More)

- Sujit S. Datta, Douglas R. Strachan, Eugene J. Mele, Alan T Charlie Johnson
- Nano letters
- 2009

Graphene-derived nanomaterials are emerging as ideal candidates for postsilicon electronics. Elucidating the electronic interaction between an insulating substrate and few-layer graphene (FLG) films is crucial for device applications. Here, we report electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) measurements revealing that the FLG surface potential increases with… (More)

- Steve M. Young, Saad Zaheer, Jeffrey C. Y. Teo, Charles L . Kane, Eugene J. Mele, Andrew M Rappe
- Physical review letters
- 2012

We show that the pseudorelativistic physics of graphene near the Fermi level can be extended to three dimensional (3D) materials. Unlike in phase transitions from inversion symmetric topological to normal insulators, we show that particular space groups also allow 3D Dirac points as symmetry protected degeneracies. We provide criteria necessary to identify… (More)

We report broadband visible photoluminescence from solid graphene oxide, and modifications of the emission spectrum by progressive chemical reduction. The data suggest a gapping of the two-dimensional electronic system by removal of π-electrons. We discuss possible gapping mechanisms, and propose that a Kekule pattern of bond distortions may account for the… (More)

The low-energy electronic spectra of rotationally faulted graphene bilayers are studied using a longwavelength theory applicable to general commensurate fault angles. Lattice commensuration requires lowenergy electronic coherence across a fault and pre-empts massless Dirac behavior near the neutrality point. Sublattice exchange symmetry distinguishes two… (More)

- Charles L . Kane, Eugene J. Mele
- Physical review letters
- 2004

Recent fluorescence spectroscopy experiments on single wall carbon nanotubes reveal substantial deviations of observed absorption and emission energies from predictions of noninteracting models of the electronic structure. Nonetheless, the data for nearly armchair nanotubes obey a nonlinear scaling relation as a function of the tube radius R. We show that… (More)

- Charles L . Kane, Eugene J. Mele
- Physical review letters
- 2003

The electronic band gaps measured in fluorescence spectroscopy on individual single wall carbon nanotubes isolated within micelles show significant deviations from the predictions of one electron band theory. We resolve this problem by developing a theory of the electron-hole interaction in the photoexcited states. The one-dimensional character and tubular… (More)