Eugene I. Shakhnovich

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In this paper we introduce a novel method of deriving a pairwise potential for protein folding. The potential is obtained by an optimization procedure that simultaneously maximizes thermodynamic stability for all proteins in the database. When applied to the representative dataset of proteins and with the energy function taken in pairwise contact(More)
Here we present an approximate analytical theory for the relationship between a protein structure's contact matrix and the shape of its energy spectrum in amino acid sequence space. We demonstrate a dependence of the number of sequences of low energy in a structure on the eigenvalues of the structure's contact matrix, and then use a Monte Carlo simulation(More)
We propose a model that explains the hierarchical organization of proteins in fold families. The model, which is based on the evolutionary selection of proteins by their native state stability, reproduces patterns of amino acids conserved across protein families. Due to its dynamic nature, the model sheds light on the evolutionary time-scales. By studying(More)
Experimental and simulation studies show that small monomeric proteins fold in one kinetic step, which entails overcoming the free-energy barrier between the unfolded and the native protein through a transition state. Two models of transition state formation have been proposed: a 'nonspecific' one in which it depends on the formation of a sufficient number(More)
There have been considerable attempts in the past to relate phenotypic trait--habitat temperature of organisms--to their genotypes, most importantly compositions of their genomes and proteomes. However, despite accumulation of anecdotal evidence, an exact and conclusive relationship between the former and the latter has been elusive. We present an(More)
The number of all possible conformations of a polypeptide chain is too large to be sampled exhaustively. Nevertheless, protein sequences do fold into unique native states in seconds (the Levinthal paradox). To determine how the Levinthal paradox is resolved, we use a lattice Monte Carlo model in which the global minimum (native state) is known. The(More)
BACKGROUND Many attempts have been made to resolve in time the folding of model proteins in computer simulations. Different computational approaches have emerged. Some of these approaches suffer from insensitivity to the geometrical properties of the proteins (lattice models), whereas others are computationally heavy (traditional molecular dynamics). (More)
The folding of many small proteins is kinetically a two-state process that represents overcoming the major free-energy barrier. A kinetic characteristic of a conformation, its probability to descend to the native state domain in the amount of time that represents a small fraction of total folding time, has been introduced to determine to which side of the(More)
Here, we provide an analysis of molecular evolution of five of the most populated protein folds: immunoglobulin fold, oligonucleotide-binding fold, Rossman fold, alpha/beta plait, and TIM barrels. In order to distinguish between "historic", functional and structural reasons for amino acid conservations, we consider proteins that acquire the same fold and(More)
We have studied the folding mechanism of lattice model 36-mer proteins. Using a simulated annealing procedure in sequence space, we have designed sequences to have sufficiently low energy in a given target conformation, which plays the role of the native structure in our study. The sequence design algorithm generated sequences for which the native(More)