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A three-dimensional lattice model of a protein is used to investigate the properties required for its folding to the native state. The polypeptide chain is represented as a 27 bead heteropolymer whose lowest energy (native) state can be determined by an exhaustive enumeration of all fully compact conformations. A total of 200 sequences with random(More)
In this paper we introduce a novel method of deriving a pairwise potential for protein folding. The potential is obtained by an optimization procedure that simultaneously maximizes thermodynamic stability for all proteins in the database. When applied to the representative dataset of proteins and with the energy function taken in pairwise contact(More)
Here we present an approximate analytical theory for the relationship between a protein structure's contact matrix and the shape of its energy spectrum in amino acid sequence space. We demonstrate a dependence of the number of sequences of low energy in a structure on the eigenvalues of the structure's contact matrix, and then use a Monte Carlo simulation(More)
To address the question of how the geometry of a protein's native conformation affects its folding and stability, we studied three model 36-mers on a cubic lattice. The native structure of one of these model 36-mers consisted mostly of local contacts, while that of a second consisted mostly of non-local contacts. The third native structure had a typical(More)
We propose a model that explains the hierarchical organization of proteins in fold families. The model, which is based on the evolutionary selection of proteins by their native state stability, reproduces patterns of amino acids conserved across protein families. Due to its dynamic nature, the model sheds light on the evolutionary time-scales. By studying(More)
There have been considerable attempts in the past to relate phenotypic trait--habitat temperature of organisms--to their genotypes, most importantly compositions of their genomes and proteomes. However, despite accumulation of anecdotal evidence, an exact and conclusive relationship between the former and the latter has been elusive. We present an(More)
The number of all possible conformations of a polypeptide chain is too large to be sampled exhaustively. Nevertheless, protein sequences do fold into unique native states in seconds (the Levinthal paradox). To determine how the Levinthal paradox is resolved, we use a lattice Monte Carlo model in which the global minimum (native state) is known. The(More)
Here, we provide an analysis of molecular evolution of five of the most populated protein folds: immunoglobulin fold, oligonucleotide-binding fold, Rossman fold, alpha/beta plait, and TIM barrels. In order to distinguish between "historic", functional and structural reasons for amino acid conservations, we consider proteins that acquire the same fold and(More)
We have studied the folding mechanism of lattice model 36-mer proteins. Using a simulated annealing procedure in sequence space, we have designed sequences to have sufficiently low energy in a given target conformation, which plays the role of the native structure in our study. The sequence design algorithm generated sequences for which the native(More)
The bottom-up approach to understanding the evolution of organisms is by studying molecular evolution. With the large number of protein structures identified in the past decades, we have discovered peculiar patterns that nature imprints on protein structural space in the course of evolution. In particular, we have discovered that the universe of protein(More)