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CONTEXT Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The contemporary clinical profile and outcome of PVE are not well defined. OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of PVE, with attention to health care-associated infection, and to determine prognostic factors(More)
BACKGROUND The contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2 to myocardial inflammation and cardiomyocyte necrosis and apoptosis during allograft rejection was investigated through heterotopic cardiac transplantation in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS In the first experiments, hearts from C3H donor mice were transplanted into NOS-2(-/-) and NOS-2(+/+)(More)
Buruli/Bairnsdale ulcer (BU) is a severe skin and soft tissue disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. To better understand how BU is acquired, we conducted a case-control study during a sustained outbreak in temperate southeastern Australia. We recruited 49 adult patients with BU and 609 control participants from a newly recognized BU-endemic area in(More)
CONTEXT Infection of implantable cardiac devices is an emerging disease with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of cardiac device infective endocarditis (CDIE) with attention to its health care association and to evaluate the association between device removal during(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization currently recommends combined streptomycin and rifampicin antibiotic treatment as first-line therapy for Mycobacterium ulcerans infections. Alternatives are needed when these are not tolerated or accepted by patients, contraindicated, or neither accessible nor affordable. Despite in vitro effectiveness, clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Paradoxical reactions from antibiotic treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans have recently been recognized. Data is lacking regarding their incidence, clinical and diagnostic features, treatment, outcomes and risk factors in an Australian population. METHODS Data was collected prospectively on all confirmed cases of M. ulcerans infection managed(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) is responsible for disfiguring skin lesions and is endemic on the Bellarine peninsula of southeastern Australia. Antibiotics have been shown to be highly effective in sterilizing lesions and preventing disease recurrences when used alone or in combination with surgery. Our practice has evolved to using primarily oral(More)
To the Editor: A tsunami devastated coastal areas of the Indian Ocean rim in December 2004. Of the affected countries, more than half of the ≈300,000 deaths occurred in the Aceh Province of Indonesia, close to the epi-center of the earthquake near northern Sumatra. Infrastructure, including medical and laboratory facilities, in this region was severely(More)
Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is an important cause of community and nosocomial sepsis, with a significant mortality rate. Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious complication, occurring in up to 25 % of cases. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) significantly improves the sensitivity of diagnosis. We compared the sensitivity and specificity(More)
BACKGROUND The hypothesis that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the myocardial inflammatory response during cardiac allograft rejection was investigated using a rat heterotopic abdominal cardiac transplantation model. METHODS AND RESULTS COX-2 mRNA and protein in the myocardium of rejecting cardiac allografts were significantly elevated 3 to 5 days(More)