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Discovering the unintended 'off-targets' that predict adverse drug reactions is daunting by empirical methods alone. Drugs can act on several protein targets, some of which can be unrelated by conventional molecular metrics, and hundreds of proteins have been implicated in side effects. Here we use a computational strategy to predict the activity of 656(More)
Notwithstanding their key roles in therapy and as biological probes, 7% of approved drugs are purported to have no known primary target, and up to 18% lack a well-defined mechanism of action. Using a chemoinformatics approach, we sought to "de-orphanize" drugs that lack primary targets. Surprisingly, targets could be easily predicted for many: Whereas these(More)
To incorporate protein-ligand interaction information into conventional two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint searching, interacting fragments of active compounds were extracted from X-ray structures of protein-ligand complexes and encoded as structural key-type fingerprints. Similarity search calculations with fingerprints derived from interacting fragments(More)
How is the 'diversity' of a compound set defined and how is the most appropriate compound subset identified for assay when screening the entire HTS deck is not an option? A common approach has so far been to cover as much of the chemical space as possible by screening a chemically diverse set of compounds. We show that, rather than chemical diversity, the(More)
Vast amounts of bioactivity data have been generated for small molecules across public and corporate domains. Biological signatures, either derived from systematic profiling efforts or from existing historical assay data, have been successfully employed for small molecule mechanism-of-action elucidation, drug repositioning, hit expansion and screening(More)
We introduce SARANEA, an open-source Java application for interactive exploration of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and structure-selectivity relationship (SSR) information in compound sets of any source. SARANEA integrates various SAR and SSR analysis functions and utilizes a network-like similarity graph data structure for visualization. The(More)
Molecular scaffolds that yield target family-selective compounds are of high interest in pharmaceutical research. There continues to be considerable debate in the field as to whether chemotypes with a priori selectivity for given target families and/or targets exist and how they might be identified. What do currently available data tell us? We present a(More)
Since the advent of high-throughput screening (HTS), there has been an urgent need for methods that facilitate the interrogation of large-scale chemical biology data to build a mode of action (MoA) hypothesis. This can be done either prior to the HTS by subset design of compounds with known MoA or post HTS by data annotation and mining. To enable this(More)
The increasing amount of chemogenomics data, that is, activity measurements of many compounds across a variety of biological targets, allows for better understanding of pharmacology in a broad biological context. Rather than assessing activity at individual biological targets, today understanding of compound interaction with complex biological systems and(More)
Close structural relationships between approved drugs and bioactive compounds were systematically assessed using matched molecular pairs. For structural analogs of drugs, target information was assembled from ChEMBL and compared to drug targets reported in DrugBank. For many drugs, multiple analogs were identified that were active against different targets.(More)