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DNA damage that blocks replication is bypassed in order to complete chromosome duplication and preserve cell viability and genome stability. Rad5, a PCNA polyubiquitin ligase and DNA-dependent ATPase in yeast, is orthologous to putative tumor suppressors and controls error-free damage bypass by an unknown mechanism. To identify the mechanism in vivo, we(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1/Rad10 complex is a multifunctional, structure-specific endonuclease that processes UV-induced DNA lesions, recombination intermediates, and inter-strand DNA crosslinks. However, we do not know how Rad1/Rad10 recognizes these structurally distinct target molecules or how it is incorporated into the protein complexes capable(More)
The integrity of the genome is threatened by DNA damage that blocks the progression of replication forks. Little is known about the genomic locations of replication fork stalling, and its determinants and consequences in vivo. Here we show that bulky DNA damaging agents induce localized fork stalling at yeast replication origins, and that localized stalling(More)
ALK gene rearrangements in advanced non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) are an indication for targeted therapy with crizotinib. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a recently approved companion in vitro diagnostic class FISH system commonly assesses ALK status. More accessible IHC is challenged by low expression of ALK-fusion transcripts in(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the feasibility of using a novel ultrasensitive bright-field in situ hybridization approach (BRISH) to evaluate κ and λ immunoglobulin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in situ in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS A series of 110 semiconsecutive clinical cases evaluated for lymphoma with historic flow cytometric (FCM) results(More)
INTRODUCTION Oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) provide the basis for targeted therapy with crizotinib and other specific ALK inhibitors. Treatment eligibility is conventionally determined by the Food and Drug Administration-approved companion diagnostic fluorescence in situ hybridization(More)
OBJECTIVES Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation status should be determined in all patients with advanced, non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) to guide targeted therapy with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. EGFR mutations are commonly tested by Sanger sequencing or allele specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR) on(More)
Prognostic and predictive markers utilized in invasive breast carcinoma are limited and include ER, PR, Ki67, and ERBB2 (HER2). In the case of HER2, over-expression or amplification serves as eligibility for anti-HER2 based therapy, including trastuzumab (Herceptin®, Genentech). While clinical trials have shown trastuzumab improves overall survival and time(More)
INTRODUCTION Overexpression of MET receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and MET gene amplification have been well-documented in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Activated MET signaling plays an important role in human cancer tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. However, the deregulation of MET/HGF pathway in(More)
Diagnostics in the field of breast carcinoma are constantly evolving. The recent wave of molecular methodologies, both microscope and non-microscope based, have opened new ways to gain insight into this disease process and have moved clinical diagnostics closer to a 'personalized medicine' approach. In this review we highlight some of the advancements that(More)