1. Climate warming has led to shifts in the seasonal timing of species. These shifts can differ across trophic levels, and as a result, predator phenology can get out of synchrony with prey phenology. This can have major consequences for predators such as population declines owing to low reproductive success. However, such trophic interactions are likely to… (More)
Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is… (More)
Carotenoids in the egg yolks of birds are considered to be important antioxidants and immune stimulants during the rapid growth of embryos. Yolk carotenoid composition is strongly affected by the carotenoid composition of the female's diet at the time of egg formation. Spatial and temporal differences in carotenoid availability may thus be reflected in yolk… (More)
Changes in the timing of reproduction of birds should provide good evidence of large-scale climate fluctuations. However, geographically separate populations of one species may respond variably. We analyzed egg laying dates of nine Eurasian populations of the Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus collected between 1969 and 2010. The timing of breeding… (More)
The change in the summer bird population of birch forests along the gradient of pollution by emissions from the Karabash Copper Smelter (Chelyabinsk oblast) was investigated in 2009 by means of point counts. As pollution grows, the total density, species richness and diversity of bird population decrease; the proportion of hole nesters in the community… (More)
Geographic variation in phenotypes plays a key role in fundamental evolutionary processes such as local adaptation, population differentiation and speciation, but the selective forces behind it are rarely known. We found support for the hypothesis that geographic variation in plumage traits of the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca is explained by character… (More)
Regrettably, during the production process the second entry value of the second column in Table 1 (Co-author/s-Biotope characteristics), was published under the third column (Country). The fifth entry in column 5 (Coordinates) was partly omitted in the official publication. The corrected Table 1 is given below. We apologize for any inconvenience caused.
The changes in habitat variables are analyzed according to the data of 2009 at ten sites along the gradient of pollution by emissions from the Karabash Copper Smelter (Chelyabinsk oblast): the pollution level, basic structural characteristics of phytocenosis, and abundance of leaf-eating invertebrates and epigeic invertebrates. The height of the top canopy,… (More)